Science Vocab Review.txt

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Anonymous
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23689
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Science Vocab Review.txt
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2010-06-15 16:59:48
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Earth Science
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All the Vocab from chapters 2.1- 10, 17-19, and 27.1-30
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  1. Independent Variable
    the variable that can be changeable in an experiment
  2. Dependent variable
    Depends on the independent variable
  3. TOpographic Map
    Map that uses contour lines, symbols, and color to show changes in the elevation of Earth's surface and features such as mountains, bridges, and rivers.
  4. Contour Line
    Line on a topographic map that connects points of equal elevation
  5. Mineral
    Inorganic solid with specific chemical compound and definite crystal structures
  6. Crystal
    solid with patterns
  7. Luster
    How a mineral reflects light
  8. Hardness
    A minerals resistance to scratch
  9. Cleavage
    How a mineral breaks if it breaks evenly along planes if atomic bonds are weak
  10. Fracture
    when a mineral breaks into pieces that are jagged and uneven
  11. Streak
    Color of the mineral
  12. Lava
    Magma that reaches earths surface
  13. Magma
    molten rock
  14. Igneous Rock
    Intrusive or extrusive rock formed from the cooling and crystallization of magma or lava
  15. Intrusive Rock
    Coarse-grained rock that is formed when molten rock cools slowly and solidifies inside Earth's crust
  16. Extrusive Rock
    Fine-grained igneous rock that formed when molten rock cools so quickly and solidifies on Earths surface
  17. Texture
    Size, shape, and distribution of crystals
  18. Porphyritic texture
    Large, well-defined crystals cooled slowly, then cooled quickly (like a chocolate chip cookie)
  19. Vesicular Texture
    When lava is so thick that gas bubbles can't escape. Spongy appearance
  20. Pegmatite
    Veins of large grained minerals
  21. Kimberlite
    Rare, ultra basic rock (Diamonds found in kimberlites)
  22. Sediment
    small pieces of rock
  23. Lithification
    chemical process turning sediments into sedimentary rocks
  24. Cementation
    Glues sediment together
  25. Compaction
    weight pushes sediment together
  26. Bedding
    Horizontal layering of sedimentary rocks
  27. Weathering
    Breaks down and changes rocks (chemically or Physically)
  28. Deposition
    Eroded materials are dropped in another location
  29. Fossil
    Preserved remains of past living organisms
  30. Porosity
    % of open space between grains in a mineral
  31. Evaporite
    When chemical sedimentary rock form from dissolved minerals in water that reached saturation; crystal grains precippitate out of solution
  32. Foliated
    Layered bands of minerals
  33. Non-foliated
    Blocks crystal shapes
  34. Metamorphism
    Produced when high pressure and high temps affect earths crust
  35. Rock Cycle
    Continuos changing and remaking of rocks
  36. RUnoff
    Water flowing downslope along earth's surface
  37. Watershed
    Land where water drains into stream system
  38. Divide
    High land area that separates watersheds (often mountains)
  39. Discharge
    Measure of volume of stream water that flows
  40. Flood
    When water spills over stream bands
  41. Floodplain
    Broad, flat area that extends out from a streams band during flooding
  42. Stream Bank
    Holds moving water within stream channel
  43. Base Level
    Elevation in where water enters another body of water
  44. Meander
    Curve or bend in a river
  45. Oxbow Lake
    Cutoff section of a river that develops over time from deposition of sediments
  46. Rejuvenation
    stream resumes downcutting toward base level
  47. Eutrophication
    Adding nutrients to watershed
  48. Infiltration
    Precipitation that falls on land and trickles to the ground
  49. Zone of Saturation
    Region below Earth's surface in which groundwater completely fills pores
  50. water Table
    Upper boundary of the zone of saturation that rises during wet seasons and drops during dry periods
  51. Zone of Aeration
    Region above the water table where materials are moist, but pores contain mostly air
  52. Permeability
    Ability of a material to let water pass through, is high in material with large, well connected pores and low in material with few pores or small pores
  53. Aquifer
    Permeable underground layer through which groundwater flows relatively easily
  54. Aquiclude
    Impermeable layer that is a barrier to groundwater; such as silt, clay, and shale
  55. Spring
    Natural discharge of groundwater at Earth's surface where an aquifer and an aquiclude come in contact
  56. Geyser
    Explosive hot spring that erupts regularly
  57. Cave
    A natural underground opening connected to Earth's surface, usually formed when groundwater dissolves limestone
  58. Sinkhole
    Depression in Earth's Surface formed when a cave collapses or bedrock is dissolved by acidic rain or moist soil
  59. Karst Topography
    Irregular topography with sinkholes, sinks, and sinking streams caused by groundwater dissolution of limestone
  60. Stalactite
    Cone-shaped or cylindrical dripstone deposit of calcium carbonate that hangs like an icicle from a cave ceiling
  61. Stalagmite
    Mound-shaped dripstone deposit of calcium carbonate that forms on a cave floor beneath a stalactite
  62. Well
    Deep hole drilled or dug into the ground to reach a reservoir of groundwater
  63. Drawdown
    Difference between the water level in a pumped well and the original water table
  64. Artesian Well
    Fountain of water that spurts above the land surface when a well taps a deep, confined aquifer containing water under pressure
  65. Continental Drift
    Idea that all continents were once joined, proposed by Wegner
  66. Pangaea
    Supercontinent
  67. Sea-floor Spreading
    New crust is formed at mid-ocean ridges and destroyed at deep-sea trenches
  68. Tectonic Plate
    Huge piece of Earth's crust that covers Earth's surface and fits together
  69. Divergent Boundary
    Place where two of Earth's tectonic plates are moving apart; is associated with volcanism, earthquakes, high heat flow, and is found primarily on the sea-floor
  70. Convergent Boundary
    Place where two tectonic plates are moving toward each other; is associated with trenches, islands, arcs, and folded mountains
  71. Subduction
    Process by which one tectonic plate slips beneath another tectonic plate
  72. Convection
    The transfer of thermal energy by the movement of heated material from one place to another
  73. Volcanism
    Anything having to do with volcanoes
  74. Hot spot
    Unusually hot area in Earth's surface
  75. Flood Basalt
    When lava flows out of Earth's surface
  76. Fissure
    Cracks in Earth's crust
  77. Conduit
    Lava travels through it in a volcano
  78. Vent
    Opening in Earth's crust through which lava erupts and flows out onto the surface
  79. Crater
    Large depression at the top of a volcano
  80. Caldera
    Forms after the magma chamber collapses in a volcano
  81. Viscosity
    Resistance to flow
  82. Tephra
    Erupted material from a volcano
  83. Pyroclastic Flow
    Swift moving, potentially deadly clouds of gas, ash, and other volcanic material produced by a violent eruption
  84. Stress
    Total force acting on a rock
  85. Strain
    Materials response to stress (STRESS CAN HAPPEN WITHOUT STRAIN, BUT STRAIN CAN'T HAPPEN WITHOUT STRESS)
  86. Fault
    Fracture along earth's crust
  87. Seismic Wave
    Vibrations of ground produced during an earthquake
  88. Focus
    Point where waves originate
  89. Epicenter
    Directly above the focus
  90. Seismometer
    Measures undetected waves not felt on the surface
  91. Seismograph
    Record produced by a seismometer
  92. Moment Magnitude Scale
    Measures energy released
  93. Modified Mercalli Scale
    Measures intensity
  94. Tsunami
    Large ocean waves
  95. Seismic Gap
    Section along faults that have been active but have not recently been active
  96. Electromagnetic Spectrum
    All types of electromagnetic radiate arranged according to wavelength and frequency
  97. Telescope
    Used to study radiation
  98. Planetesimals
    Small objects that can form planets
  99. Terrestrial Planets
    One of the rocky-surfaced relatively small, dense inner planets closest to the sun- Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
  100. Gas Giant Planets
    Large, Gaseous Planet that is very cold at its surface; has rings, systems, many moons, and lacks solid surfaces- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
  101. Dwarf Planet
    An object that, due to its own gravity, is spherical in shape, orbits the sun, is not a satellite, and has not cleared the area of its orbit of smaller debris
  102. List Planets in Order
    • Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
    • My Very Earnest Mother Just Served Us Noodles
  103. Life cycle of a star: Normal Mass
    Nebula, Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Giant, Planetary Nebula, White Dwarf, Black Dwarf
  104. Life cycle of a star: Large Mass
    Nebula, Protostar, Main Sequence, Red Supergiant, Supernova, Neutron Star (or Black Hole)
  105. Solar Wind
    Particles that flow from the corona
  106. Sunspot
    Dark spot on the surface of the photosphere
  107. Solar Flare
    Violent eruption on suns surface
  108. Prominence
    Arc of gas ejected from the chromosphere
  109. Fusion
    Combining of lightweight nuclei into heavier nuclei
  110. Fission
    Process in which heavy atomic nuclei split into smaller, lighter atomic nuclei
  111. Constellation
    Group of stars in the sky that resemble an animal, mythological character, or everyday object
  112. Binary Star
    Two stars that are gravitationally bound to each other by a common center of mass
  113. Parallax
    Shift in position by the observer
  114. Apparent Magnitude
    How bright a star appears (Doesn't take into account distance)
  115. Absolute Magnitude
    Brightness if placed 10 parsecs away
  116. Luminosity
    Energy output
  117. Hertzsprung-Russel Diagram
    Graph that relates stellar characteristics- class, mass, temp, magnitude, diameter, and luminosity
  118. Star Clusters
    Groups of stars that are gravitationally bound to each other
  119. Red Shift
    When the star moves away from the observer, the wavelengths become longer
  120. Blue Shift
    When a star is moving towards the observer, the spectral lines are shifted toward shorter wavelengths
  121. Big Band Theory
    Theory that proposes that the universe began as a single point and has been expanding ever since
  122. Cosmic Background Radiation
    • Scientists discovered persistent background noise in their radio antenna. Noise was caused by weak radiation (AKA Cosmic Background Radiation)
    • Appeared to be coming from all directions and have an emitting object having a temp very similar to the temp predicted to have caused the big bang.

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