the two or more alternative forms of a gene that can occupy a specific location on a chromosome
a collective term for all of the chromosomal material within a given cell
structures in the nuclei of cells that contain threads of DNA which transmit genetic information and are associated with RNA molecules and synthesis of protein molecules
the biologic unit of heredity; a segment of a DNA molecule that contains all of the molecular information required for the synthesis of a biologic product such as an RNA molecule or an amino acid chain.
DNA or RNA molecules or portions thereof
study of the structure, function, and inheritance of genes
the complete set of genetic material of any organism. contained in multiple chromosomes in higher organisms; a single chromosome as in bacteria; or a single DNA or RNA strand as in viruses.
the particular alleles present at a given site on the chromosomes of an organism that determine a specific genetic trait for that organism.
molecules of DNA and RNA in the nucleus of every cell. DNA makes up the chromosomes and encodes the genes.
the expression in the body of a genetic trait that results from a person's particular genotype for that trait.
the entire set of proteins produced from the information encoded in an organism's genome
DNA molecules that have been artificially synthesized or modified in a laboratory setting.