Med Terms Chapter 4

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Med Terms Chapter 4
2013-09-27 13:33:48

med terms
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  1. AKA
    above the know amputation
  2. BKA
    below knee amputation
  3. CAT
    computed axial tomography
  4. CT
    computed tomography
  5. DJD
    degenerative joint disease
  6. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  7. NSAID
    non steroidal anti infammatory
  8. OA
  9. PT
    physical therapy
  10. RA
    rheumatoid arthritis
  11. ROM
    range of motion
  12. Abduction
    movement away from the body
    movement toward the body
  14. Amputation
    partial or complete removal of a limb (AKA_above-knee or BKA_below-the knee amputation
  15. analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain
  16. atomic or anatomical position
    a term of reference that heath professionals use when noting body anatomical position planes, positions, or directions: the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this pose when applying any other term of reference body planes
  17. ankylosis
    stiff joint condition
  18. anterior
    • front of body
    • synonym: ventral
  19. Anterior-Posterior (AP)
    from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam
  20. antipyertic
    a drug that relieve fever
  21. appendicular skeleton
    bone of the shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
  22. Athralagia
    joint pain
  23. arthritis
    inflammation of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limitation of motion. There are more than 100 types of arthritis
  24. arthrocentesis
    puncture for aspiration of a joint
  25. arthroplasty
    repair or reconstruction of a joint
  26. arthroscopy
    procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and a repair a joint from within
  27. articular cartilage
    a gristle like substance on bones where they articulate (consisting of segments united by joint)
  28. articulation
    a joint; the point where 2 bones come together
  29. atrophy
    shrinking of muscle size
  30. axial skeleton
    bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest and hyoid bone (U-shaped at the base of the tongue)
  31. axis
    the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body part
  32. body planes
    reference planes for indicating the location and direction of the body parts
  33. bone
    • a specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cell)
    • forms the skeleton
  34. bone grafting
    transplantation of a piece of bone from on site to  another to repair a skeletal defect
  35. bone marrow
    self connective tissue within the medullary cavity of the bone
  36. bunion
    swelling the joint at the base of the great toe caused by the inflammation of the bursa
  37. bursa
    a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
  38. Bursectomy
    excision of the bursa
  39. bursitis
    inflammation of the bursa
  40. cardiac muscle
    muscle of the heart
  41. casting
    use of a stiff, solid dressing around a limb or other body part to immobilize it during healing
  42. cephalic
    situated above another structure,  toward the head
  43. caudal
    situated below another structure, away form the head
  44. closed fracture
    broken bone with no open wound
  45. compact bone
    tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of the bones
  46. Computed Axial Tomography (CAT)
    a specialized x-ray procedure producing a series of cross- (CT) sectional images that are processed by a computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image
  47. complex fracture
    displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
  48. Computed Tomography (CT)
    a specialized x-ray procedure producing a series of cross(CT) sectional images that are processed by a computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image
  49. crepitation
    grating sound sometimes made by the movement of a joint or broken bones
  50. Degenerative joint
    • most common form of arthritis, especially affecting the weight bearing joints (knee or hip)
    • characterized by the erosion cartilage
  51. disk or disc
    a flat, plate like structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue between the vertebrae that reduces friction
  52. distal
    • away from the beginning or origin of the structure
    • for example, the distal aspect of the femur (thing bone) is the area at the end of the bone near the knee
  53. dorsal
    back of the body
  54. dorsiflexion
    bending of the foot or the toes upward
  55. epiphysis
    wide ends of a long bone (physis = growth)
  56. erect
    normal standing position
  57. eversion
    turning out ward (i.e. of a foot)
  58. exostosis
    a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
  59. extension
    straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bone is increased
  60. fascia
    a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle
  61. flaccid
    flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
  62. flexion
    bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
  63. fracture
    broken or cracked bone
  64. fracture line
    the line of the break in a broken bone
  65. frontal plane
    vertical position of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions
  66. gouty arthritis
    acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single join (especially the great toe), caused by hyperuricemia (an excess level of uric acid in the blood)
  67. herniated disk
    protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes cause compression on the nerve root
  68. hypertrophy
    increase in the size of tissue, such as muscle
  69. hypotonia
    reduced muscle tone or tension
  70. inferior
    • situated below another structure  away from the head
    • synonym: caudal
  71. inversion
    turning inward
  72. kyphosis
    abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (hump-back condition)
  73. lateral
    toward the side
  74. ligament
    a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
  75. long bones
    bones of the arms and legs
  76. lordosis
    abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway back condition)
  77. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • a nonionizing (no x-ray) imaging technique using magnetic 
    • imaging (MRI) fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures; useful in orthopedic studies to detect joint, tendon, and vertebral disk disorders
  78. Medial
    toward the middle (midline)
  79. Medullary cavity
    cavity within the shaft of the long bones, filled with bone marrow
  80. muscle
    tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or part of the body
  81. muscular dystrophy
    a category of genetically transmitted diseases characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles (Duchene type in the most common)
  82. myalgia
    muscle pain
  83. myeloma
    bone marrow tumer
  84. myoplasty
    repair of muscle
  85. myositis
    inflammation of muscle
  86. narcotic
    a potent analgesic with addictive properties
  87. non steroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID)
    • a grouped of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties
    • ibuprofen and aspirin
    • commonly used to treat arthritis
  88. nucleus pulposus
    the soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of invertebral disk
  89. open fracture
    compound fracture, broken bone with an open wound
  90. ostealgia
    bone pain
  91. ostealgia
    bone pain
  92. osteoarthritis
    most common for of arthritis, especially affecting the weight-bearing joints (knee hip) characterized by the erosion of the cartilage
  93. osteomalcia
    disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vit D deficiency
  94. osteomyelitis
    infection of the bone and bone marrow, causing inflammation
  95. osteoporosis
    • condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and to fracture more easily 
    • porosis = passage
  96. osteosarcoma
    type of malignant bone tumor
  97. Physical Therapy (PT)
    treatment to rehabilitate patients disabled by illness or injury; involves many different modalities (methods) such as exercise, hydrotherapy, diathermy, and ultrasound
  98. plantar flexion
    bending of the sole of the foot by curling toes toward the ground
  99. posterior
    • back of the body 
    • synonym: dorsal
  100. prone
    lying face down and flat
  101. prosthesis
    an artificial replacement of a missing body part or a device used to improve body function such as an artificial limb, hip, or joint
  102. proximal
    • toward the beginning or origin of a structure
    • example: the proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area closet to where it attaches to the hip
  103. radiography
    • an imaging modality using x-rays (ionizing radiation)
    • commonly used in orthopedics to visualize the extremities, ribs, back, shoulders, and joints
  104. Range of Motion (ROM)
    • total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements 
    • ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct
    • measure in degrees
  105. recumbent
    lying down
  106. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
    • most crippling form of arthritis
    • characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation, most often affecting joins and synovialmembranes (especially in the hands and feet) and causing ankylosis and deformity
  107. rickets
    osteomalacia in children causes bone deformity
  108. rigor
    stiffness, stiff muscle
  109. sagital plane
    vertical division of the body into the right and left portions of the body
  110. scoliosis
    • abnormal lateral curvature of the spine 
    • S-shaped curve
  111. short bones
    bones of the wrist and ankles
  112. simple fracture
    • nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair
    • hairline fracture, stress fracture or a crack
  113. skeletal muscle
    voluntary muscle attached to skeleton
  114. smooth muscle
    involuntary muscle found in internal organs
  115. spasm
    • drawing in
    • involuntary contraction of muscle
  116. spastic
    • uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements
    • resembles spasm
  117. splinting
    • use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone or injured body part
    • provides less support that a cast, but can be adjusted more easily to accommodate swelling from an injury
  118. spondylosis
    stiff, immovable condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration
  119. spongy bone
    mesh like bone tissue found in the interior bones and surrounding medullary cavity
  120. sprain
    injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture
  121. striated muscle
    voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton
  122. superior
    situated above another structure, toward the head
  123. supine
    horizontal recumbent, lying flat on the back (on the spine)
  124. synovial fluid
    joint lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
  125. tendinitis or tendonitis
    inflammation of the tendon
  126. tendon
    a band of fibrous tissue the connects muscle to bond
  127. Tetany
    • tension
    • prolonged, continuous muscle contraction
  128. Traction (TX)
    application of a pulling force to a fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
  129. transverse plane
    horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
  130. tremor
    shaking, rhythmic muscular movement
  131. ventral
    • front of the body
    • anterior