Mesopotamia Technology

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Mesopotamia Technology
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2013-09-24 21:37:43
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Mesopotamia Technology
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  1. Where are the Babylonians located?
    located in what is now Iraq and on the eastern bank of the Euphrates river.
  2. Where are the Assyrians located?
    included almost all of mesopotamia, SE Anatolia (Turkey), Judah (Israel), NW Moab, (Jordan) Egypt, Phonecia (Lebanon)
  3. The common weaponry of the Mesopotamians
    • bows and arrows, slings, spheres, small knifes, axes
    • The Assyrian Army used iron in their weapons. They had the most advanced weapons for their times.
  4. The advantage of Assyrian weaponry and war machine beasts of burden, over the Mesopotamians
    • donkeys cattle and oxen were the beasts of burden
    • Made of iron, they had great rams, or arms, which were banged against the brick walls of the towns and battered them to pieces. Few city walls could stand against an attack from these Assyrian war machines.
  5. contrast kingdoms with empires
    A kingdom is a city-state and has its own king that ruled that city-state. The king would the king would conquer other city-states to get more wealth. That makes it an empire. the people had to pay tribute which is taxes, trade goods, slaves, raw materials, and other wealth to the supreme king
  6. What does international trade bring?
    New ideas, allies, wealth, and increased commodities for the wealthy to purchase
  7. expansionism
    means conquering. The Assyrians and Babylonians were always fighting with each other. Why?
  8. The 'Hanging Gardens' of Babylon
    • The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were created by Emperor Nebuchadnezzar II the King Of Babylon
    • Because of the lack of evidence it has been suggested that the Hanging Gardens are purely legendary
  9. The irrigation engineering feats to accomplish 'Hanging Gardens'
    It's no small feat to keep plants thriving in the desert, but to transport water to flowers perched atop a nearly five-story building is a monstrous challenge. The gardens would have relied on the Euphrates as their irrigation source, and the water would likely have been transported through a pumping system made of reeds and stone and stored in a massive holding tank.
  10. The importance of the Ishtar gate
    • it had dragons and bulls on it. Dragons are the symbol of Marduk, the top god.
    • The holiest gate in Babylon. It would only be used on holy days when great processions would leave the city and pass through Ishtar’s Gate to the ziggurat dedicated to Marduk. Ishtar’s Gate, in other words, was a portal
  11. Why were animistic figures sculpted, painted, and chiseled in relief throughout government buildings, temples, and the palace
  12. Why religious leaders were the first to study the heavens
  13. The reasons for the invention of the calendar tied to the moon’s movements
  14. Cuneiform documentation of calculating distances, stages (phases) of celestial (heavenly) appearances, time periods, holy days, agricultural-related days, & supernatural (of the deities) events
  15. How eclipses & comets were seen by the priests
    • Comets - good
    • Eclipses - Bad
  16. Why priest-astronomers altered their calendar calculations by 400B.C.
    because the days of the year were off which caused them to have the wrong time for harvesting and floods
  17. The creation of actual time segments (hours, minutes, & seconds)
  18. The sexagesimal number system
    Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base. It originated with the ancient Sumerians in the 3rd millennium BC, it was passed down to the ancient Babylonians, and it is still used — in a modified form — for measuring time, angles, andgeographic coordinates.
  19. The Sumerian Mesopotamians were not aware of our earth’s orbiting or rotation but they did observe the heaven’s movements
  20. Why constellations were created; remember the priest-astronomers wanted to pay homage (reverence & respect) to the deities
    because they were looking up at the gods and saw their gods in the stars
  21. The Babylonian constellations
  22. Why the Mesopotamians could cite with their bare eyes, the planets Jupiter & Saturn! (Remember there was no pollution!)

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