Horse Production Test 1- Anatomy

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Horse Production Test 1- Anatomy
2013-09-24 22:40:54
horse anatomy

test 1
Show Answers:

  1. how many bones in the skeletal system
  2. how many bones comprise the skull
  3. how many cervical vertebrae
  4. how many thoracic vertebrae
  5. which thoracic vertebrae make up the withers
  6. how many lumbar vertebrae
  7. how many sacral vertebrae
    5 (fused)
  8. how many coccygeal vertebrae
  9. how many pairs of ribs?
    18. 8 are attached to sternum, 10 by costal cartilage
  10. what do consider when buying a horse
    • purpose
    • performance potential
    • conformation
  11. conformation relates to the
    performance potential
  12. what comes from good confirmation?
    coordination and durability
  13. what connects muscles to bone?
  14. ideal hip:
  15. what lines make the trapezoid?
    shoulder, top line, hip, bottom line
  16. what does the shoulder affect?
    • travel
    • riding comfort
    • performance
  17. what is ideal for the head?
    • wide spacing between eyes
    • large pupils
    • flat in the middle
  18. ideal nostrils:
    wide open to allow deeper breaths
  19. ideal mouth
    • needs to be deep
    • no short muzzle or opening
    • incisors level and adequately placed
  20. jaw deformations:
    • extremely heritable
    • can be a slight overbite or very extreme
    • parrot jaw
    • monkey jaw
  21. ideal neck:
    • ties in just above the shoulder
    • helps counter balance the rear end
    • length and shape are important
  22. basquel
    neck position that counter balances jumping
  23. when the neck ties in low:
    horse can't keep its head low
  24. when the neck is short and thick:
    horse is heavy on front end and keeps neck low
  25. the neck affects:
    • center of gravity
    • center of motion
  26. bull neck:
    • ties in high
    • cresty neck is due to a ligament or layer of fat
    • standard in draft breeds
  27. swan neck:
    • dives down
    • weak neck muscles
    • easily collected and have flexibility in neck
  28. ewe neck:
    • ties into withers
    • naturally elevated
    • difficult to use hind end
  29. when connects bone to bone?
  30. ligaments:
    stabilize bones
  31. tendons:
    support locomotion
  32. free floating bones:
    novicular and sesamoid
  33. shoulder affects:
    the length of the stride
  34. laid back shoulders:
    helps horses extend out
  35. upright shoulders:
    can't stride out very far
  36. withers:
    • height is important
    • provides freedom of movement and strength of muscle
  37. mutton withers:
    • short
    • have little strength
    • hard to keep equipment on
  38. long humerus:
    ideal to allow the horse to collect under itself
  39. short humerus:
    causes limited collection
  40. ideal chest:
    • wide to allow for more air intake
    • affects how the ribs are spread out
  41. ideal barrel:
    wide and sprung out to allow the diaphragm to spread out
  42. wide chested:
    • too wide causes bow-legged
    • ideal in draft breeds
  43. narrow chested:
    • good for jumping, dressage and gaited horses
    • allows more movement in front end
  44. ideal forearm:
    • long
    • should be the same length or longer than the humerus
  45. most important bone in front leg:
    cannon bone
  46. how much weight bearing is on the front end?
  47. weight when standing/walking:
    on front end
  48. weight when trotting/loping
    distributed between both ends
  49. ideal cannon bone:
    • short
    • don't want it the same length as radius & ulna/ forearm
  50. long cannon bone:
    • not ideal
    • less stable like being on stilts
  51. ideal pastern bone:
    long and sloping
  52. sloping pastern bone:
    • ideal for fluid movement
    • the angle should be the same as in the shoulder
  53. short pastern:
    • horse is more upright
    • choppy movement
    • causes problems like novicular
  54. Toed In:
    • leg is straight until the toe which is turned in
    • causes horse to paddle out
  55. best time to correct hoof problems:
    when the horse is growing
  56. Toed Out:
    better to be a wide chested/based horse so the horse wings when it walks not plaites
  57. ideal hoof angle:
    should be similar to the angle of the shoulder and pastern
  58. ideal back:
    • short and compact
    • allows horse to collect under itself
  59. long back:
    • causes loin to be loose
    • prone to injury
    • harder to collect
    • less durable, need stronger ab muscles
  60. the loin:
    gives power to hind quarters
  61. swayed back:
    • long back & weak loin causes it
    • seen in aged horses because they loose connective tissue
    • genetic when seen in young horses
  62. sacrum & crupe angle:
    determine how they stride out in the back
  63. ideal hind limbs:
    straight line from butt to hock to cannon to the ground
  64. ideal croup:
  65. long croup:
    indicates weakness
  66. breed that wants horses cow-hocked
    draft breeds
  67. sickle hocked:
    causes strain on tendons
  68. post legged horses:
    predisposed to arthritic conditions
  69. post legged:
    • limits the horse
    • gives little extension
    • no angles
    • hard to get under itself
  70. muscling can be manipulated through
  71. skeletal muscle:
    helps with locomotion
  72. fat deposits:
    • for insulation and energy
    • don't interfere with muscle quality
  73. poor muscling:
    • poor body condition
    • little muscle definition
  74. excessive muscling:
    • can be genetic
    • usually found in draft breeds
    • interferes with how they work and move their legs