Ecology Chapter 2

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laurenschmalz
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Ecology Chapter 2
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2013-09-25 18:38:05
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Ecology Chapter 2
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  1. Population
    • All the individuals of a species that occupy a particular geographic area at a certain time.
    • E.g. population of Canada=34.88 million(2012)
  2. Exponential Growth
    • Accelerating growth that produces a J-shaped curve when the population is graphed against time.
    • E.g. The growth of algae in a newly formed pond, South African elephants after they became protected.
  3. Limiting Factors
    • A factor that limits the growth, distribution, or amount of a population in an ecosystem.
    • E.g. Some factors include; amount of resources (food, nutrients,energy), habitats that have all the right characteristics for the organisms, predetors.
  4. Carrying Capacity
    • The size of a population that can be supported indefinitely by the available resources and services of an ecosystem.
    • E.g. The rabbit population in the figure shown undertook exponential growth before reaching it's carrying capacity.
  5. Ecological Niche
    • The way that an organism occupies a position in a ecosystem, including all the necessary biotic and abiotic factors.
    • E.g. Some factors include; food, places for daily living, competitors.
  6. Predator
    • An organism that kills and consumes other organism.
    • E.g. humans, wolves, lions, snakes, sharks, frogs, lynx.
  7. Prey
    • An organism that is eaten as food by a predator.
    • E.g. rabbits, flies, mice, seals, minnow, antelopes, zebras.
  8. Mutualism
    • A symbiotic relationship between two species in which both species benefit from the relationship.
    • E.g. For coral, a biotic factor would be the algae and an abiotic factor would be temperature of water.
  9. Parasite
    • An organism whose niche is dependent on a close association with a larger host organism.
    • E.g. A mosquito consumes blood from other organisms, such as humans, and does not give anything in return.
  10. Competition
    • An interaction between two or more organisms when they compete over the same resource.
    • E.g. When two female leopards compete for territory.
  11. Sustainable Use
    • Use that does not lead to long-term depletion of a resource or affect the diversity of the ecosystem from which the resource is obtained.
    • E.g. Using water in a way that can be useful and still being able to use it again in another way.
  12. Unsustainable
    • A pattern of activity that leads to a decline in the function of an ecosystem.
    • E.g. Humans being dependent on non-renewable fossil fuels.
  13. Sustainability
    • Use of Earth's resources, including land and water, at levels that can continue forever.
    • E.g. Using less resources, such as water, food, and energy.
  14. Ecosystem Services
    • ○ The benefits experienced by organisms, including humans, that are provided by sustainable ecosystems.
    • ○ E.g. the cycling of nutrients, the provision of food and water, the provision of beauty and spirituality, the pollination of crops and natural vegetation.
  15. Desertification
    • The change of non-desert land into a desert; desertification may result from climate change and unsustainable farming or water use.
    • E.g. Clearing land , severe drought, erosion.
  16. Doubling Time
    • The period of time that is required for a population to double in size.
    • E.g. It took 20 years for the hare population to double from 2 thousand to 4 thousand
  17. Ecological Footprint
    • A measure of the impact of an individual or a population on the environment in terms of energy consumption, land use and waster production.
    • E.g. Canada has a high ecological footprint because we burn many fossil fuels and transport materials across the country using fuel.
  18. Ecotourism
    • A form of tourism that is sensitive to the health of an ecosystem and involves recreational activities provided by sustainable ecosystems.
    • E.g. whale watching, hiking, canoeing, kayaking, snowshoeing.

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