CD 118; Chapter 2

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CD 118; Chapter 2
2013-09-25 19:03:14
Biological beginnings

Key points
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  1. Natural Selection
    Is the evolutionary process by which those individuals of a species that are best adapted are the one that survive and reproduce
  2. Adaptive behavior
    is behavior that promotes an organism's survival  in the natural habitat.
  3. Evolutionary Psychology
    branch of psychology that emphasizes the importance of adaptation, reproduction and " survival of the fittest" in shaping behavior.
  4. what does fit mean in survival of the fittest?
    the ability to bear offspring that survive long enough to bear offsprings of their own
  5. Chromosomes
    • are threadlike structures that come in 23 pairs,with one member of each pair coming from each parent.
    • -the contain the genetic substance DNA
  6. DNA
    • a complex molecule that contains genetic information.(Deoxyribonucleic acid)
    • - double helix shape, like a spiral stair case
  7. Genes
    • Units of hereditary information, are short segments of DNA
    • - Genes direct cells to reproduce themselves and manufacture the protein that maintain life
  8. Mitosis
    Cellular reproduction in which the cell's nucleus duplicated itself with two new cell being formed, each containing the same DNA as the parent cell, arranged in the same 23 pairs of chromosomes
  9. Meiosis
    A Specialized form of cell division that forms eggs and sperm( or gametes)
  10. fertilization
    a stage in reproduction whereby an egg and a sperm fuse to create a single cell, called a zygote
  11. zygote
    a single cell formed through fertilization
  12. genotype
    a person's genetic heritage; the actual genetic material
  13. phenotype
    the way an individual's genotype is expressed in observed and measurable (height, weight and hair color)

    -observable characteristics/Physical/psychological (personality)
  14. How do identical twins form?
    • a single zygote that splits into two genetically identical replicas 
    • also called monozygotic twins
  15. How do fraternal twins form?
    • also called dizygotictiwns
    • develop from separate eggs and separate sperm, making them genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings
  16. mutated gene
    permanently altered segment of dna

    ex of how it happens is by radiation, mistake by cellular machinery
  17. Dominant-Recessive Genes Principle (Potential Problem)
    • - One gene of a pair always exerts its effect, it is dominant
    • -The principle that if one gene of a pair is dominant and the other is recessive, the dominant gene exerts its effect, overriding the potential influence of the recessive gene. A recessive gene exerts its influence only if both genes in the pair are recessive
    • -It over rides the potential influence of the other gene
    • -Recessive gene exerts its influence only if the two genes of the pair are recessive
    • -If you recieve the recessive trait from each parent you will show the trait
  18. Can two brown-haired parents have a blond haired child?
    Yes.  suppose that each parent has a dominant gene for brown hair and recessive gene for for blond hair.but both are carriers of blondness and pass their recessive genes for blond hair. with no dominant gene to over ride them the recessive gene can make the childs hair blond
  19. Sex-Linked Genes
    • Most mutated gene is carried on the X Chromosomes
    • -Males have only one Chromosome, no back up to copy to counter the harmful gene and therefore may carry an ex-linked disease
    • -Females have a second X chromosome which is likely to be unchanged, as a result they are not likely to have the X-linked disease
    • -Females who have one changed copy of the X gene are known as carriers
    • example of this type of disease is Fragile -x Syndrome
  20. Genetic Imprinting
    • Occurs when the expression of a gene has different effects depending on whether the mother or the father passed on the gene
    • - A chemical process "silences" one member of the gene pair
  21. What happens when gentic imprinting goes awry?
    • development is disturbed 
    • ex Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome( growth disorder
    • and Wilms Tumor(type of cancer)
  22. gene-gene interaction
    used to describe studies that focus on the interdependence of two or more genes in influencing characteristics, behavior, diseases and development
  23. Down Syndrome
    • is a chromosomal abnormality 
    • form of mental retardation, caused by the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 21
    • -phenotype- round face, a flattened skull, short limbs, retardation or mental and motor skills
  24. Sex-Linked Chromosomal abnormalities
    Most common involve the presence of an extra chromosome( either an x or a y) or the absence of one x chromosome in females

    • EX-Klinefelter Sydrome
    • Fragile X sydrome
    • XYY Syndrome
    • Turner Syndrome
  25. Klinefelter Syndrom
    Genetic disorder in which males have an extra x chromosome, making them xxy instead of xy

    Usually have underdeveloped testes, enlarged breast and become tall
  26. Fragile X Syndrome
    • genetic disorder that results from an abnormality in the X chromosome, which becomes constricted and often breaks 
    • -Mental deficiency often is an outcome 
    • -Cognitive deficiency
  27. Turner Syndrome
    Chromosomal disorder in females in which either an x chromosome is missing, making her a xo instead of xx or part of one x chromosome is deleted 

    these women have webbed necks, may be infertile, difficulty in math but verbal ablilty is often good
  28. XYY Syndrome
  29. PKU
    a genetic disorder in which an individual cannot properly metabolize an amino acid.

    It is easily detected but if left untreated results in metal retardation and hyperactivity
  30. Sickle-Cell anemia
    • Gene- Linked abnormality 
    • Occurs most in African Americans 
    • Genetic disorder that impairs the body's red blood cells.
    • Recessive gene causes the red blood cell to become hook shaped(sickle) that cannot carry oxygen properly and dies. as result body cells do not receive adequate oxygen, causing Anemia and early death.
  31. Ultrasound Sonography
    • High frequency sound waves that can detect many structural abnomalites of fetus, including microenchephly, a form of mental retardation in volving a abnormly small brain, even gives clue to babies sex
    • no harm is done to fetus or mother
    • 7 weeks 
  32. Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
    • is a prenatal medical procedure in which a small sample of the placenta is removed. Diagnosis takes 10 days
    • there is a risk of limb deformity when cvs is used
    • 10th or 12thweek
  33. Amniocentesis
    • is a prenatal medical procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by a syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders 
    • preformed at 15-18 weeks
  34. Infertility
    The inability to conceive a child after months of regular intercourse without contraception 
  35. What can be a reason that a women is infertile?
    • Women may not be ovulating(Releasing eggs to be fertilized)
    • Her fallopain tubes may be blocked
    • she may have a desease that pervents implantation of the embryo in her uterus 
  36. What can be a reason that a man is infertile?
    • Produce too few sperm
    • sperm may lack mobility
    • May have a blocked passage way
  37. What are options for Infertile couples ?
    • Surgery may correct the cause
    • They can take hormone based drugs that may improve the probability of having a child
    • Can try high-tech assisted reproduction like in vitro fertilization(IVF)
    • Adoption 
  38. in vitro fertilization
    • egg and sperm are combined in a laboratory dish
    • Eggs that are sucessfully fertilized are transfered into the mothers uterus 
  39. what did meta anaylsis show about in vitro fertilization births?
     increased risk of low birth rate
  40. Examples or Prenatal diagnostic tests?
    • Ultrasound sonography
    • Fetal MRI
    • Chronic Villus Sampling
    • Amniocentesis
    • Maternal blood screening 
    • triple screen
    • noninvasive prenatal diagnostic