Clin Path "Jasper" Quiz

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lacamp11
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236926
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Clin Path "Jasper" Quiz
Updated:
2013-09-24 23:05:38
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Clin path quiz
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"Jasper" quiz
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  1. Normal range WBC count in feline
    5.5-19.5 X10^3
  2. Normal range of PCV in feline
    24-45%
  3. Normal range of TSP in feline
    6.0-7.5 g/dL
  4. Normal range of Hb in feline
    8-15 g/dL
  5. 3 Causes of icterus and what type of billirubin we see increased in each (direct/indirect)
    • Blockage if bile ducts- indirect
    • Increased intravascular RBC destruction- direct
    • Liver disease- direct
  6. What is the urine pigment called?
    urobiliogen
  7. What is the fecal pigment called
    stercobiliogen
  8. Causes of increased TSP
    • Dehydration
    • Protein losing enteropathy
    • Post immunization
    • Liver disease multiple myeloma
    • Chronic antigenic stimulation
    • Intravascular hemolysis
    • Infection/ Inflammation
    • Excessive protein diet
  9. Causes of decreased TSP
    • Overhydration
    • Malabsorbtion
    • Hemhorrage
    • Liver diseaseĀ 
    • Renal disease (losing protein)
  10. Describe the apperance of toxic neutrophils
    • foamy and basophilic cytoplasm
    • may have dohle bodies
    • vacuoles
    • hypersegmented nucleus
    • pyknotic nucleus
  11. Sodium is primarily found where?
    outside cells
  12. High blood levels of sodium
    Hypernatremia
  13. Low blood levels of sodium
    Hyponatremia
  14. What are the roles of sodium in the body
    • Water distribution
    • Osmotic pressure
    • pH regulation of urine
  15. Potassium is primarily found where?
    Intracellular
  16. High blood levels of potassium
    Hyperkalemia
  17. Low blood levels of potassium
    Hypokalemia
  18. Causes of hyperkalemia
    cellular damage/ necrosis
  19. Causes of hypokalemia
    • inadequate intakeĀ 
    • fluid loss
  20. What does potassium do for the body?
    • Normal muscular function
    • Nerve impulse transmission
    • Cardiac function
    • Carb metabolism
  21. What does calcium do for the body
    • Muscle contraction
    • Maintenance of enzymes
    • Blood coagulation
    • Neuromuscular function
  22. Causes of hypercalcemia
    • Bone/ bone marrow tumors
    • Tumors/ disease associated with parathyroid or thyroid glands
    • Increased intake of vitamin D
  23. What hormones keep calcium and phosphorus in balance?
    • Calcitonin
    • PTH
  24. What hormone raises calcium levels? How?
    • PTH
    • increases reabsorbtion of calcium by the kidneys and GI tract, causes calcium to be mobilized from bone
  25. What can falsely elevate phosphorus levels in the blood?
    Hemolyzed samples
  26. Where is alkaline phosphatase located?
    • Inside osteoblasts and chondroblasts
    • Liver
    • Intestine and placenta
  27. In young animals, where does AP come from?
    osteoblasts and chondroblasts b/c of active bone development
  28. AP screening tests are most often used to detect what condition in adult animals?
    Cholestasis (blockage of bile ducts)
  29. Causes of increased AP
    • Hepatobiliary issues associated with cholestasis
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Drugs
  30. Where is CK (CPK) (Creatine Kinase) produced?
    Striated muscle cells and brain
  31. CK is a very highly specific test for what?
    cardiac and skeletal muscle damage
  32. What specifically can cause increased CK levels?
    • IM injections
    • Persistent recumbancy
    • Surgery
    • Vigorous exercise
    • Electric shock
    • Laceration
    • Brusing
    • Hypothermia
  33. What does T4 do in the body?
    Growth, syntheisis, metabolism in all body cells.
  34. What sequence of hormones cause the release of T4?
    The anterior pituitary secretes TSH which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete T4.
  35. Clinical signs of increased T4
    • Weight loss
    • Unthrifty
    • Increased temp
    • Increased appetite
  36. Clinical signs of decreased T4
    • Weight gain
    • Lethargy
    • Coat and skin issues
    • Cold intolerance
  37. Do cats or dogs typically get hypothyroidism?
    Dogs
  38. Increased phosphorus in the blood
    Hyperphosphatemia
  39. List the three globulins, where is each made, what does each do?
    • Alpha; liver; transport & bind
    • Beta; liver; transport & bind
    • Gamma; plasma cells; immunity
  40. List the four urine collection methods
    • Voided
    • Manual expression of bladder
    • Cathterization
    • Cystocentesis
  41. Advantages of cystocentesis
    Sterile sample in a normal animal
  42. Disadvantage of cystocentesis
    Requires adequate volume of urine to minimize damage to other internal structures
  43. Causes of acidic urine
    • Prolonged muscle activity; exercise
    • Starvation
    • Fever
    • Young, nursing animal
    • Acidosis
    • Urinary acidifiers
    • High protein diets
  44. Causes of alkaline urine
    • Delay in analysis (retained in bladder or outside)
    • Cystitis
    • IV fluids containing sodium bicarb
    • Metabolic or respiratory alkalosis
    • High vegtable diet
  45. What does the SG of urine indicate?
    Ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine
  46. List differences of HW infection in cat and dog.
    • Microfilaria can live 2 years (5 in dogs)
    • 8 mo. prepatent period (6 mo. in dogs)
    • < 20% of cats have detectable microfilaria
    • Adult burdens are less
    • One adult can be fatal in cats
    • Cats are more suseptible to arsenic than dogs
  47. List HW preventatives and other parasites treated with them.
    • Revolution (selemectin): Ear mites, hooks, rounds (cats only)
    • Advantage Multi (imidicloprid & moxidectin): Adult fleas, ear mites, rounds, hooks
    • Trifexis (mylbemycin & spinosad): hooks, whips, rounds, fleas dogs only
  48. How is cystocentesis performed?
    • Sterile prep
    • 22/20 gauge needle x 1-1 1/2 in long
    • 10 mL syringe
    • Bladder is palpated and immobliized, needle inserted into the caudal abdomen. Aspirate urine into syringe and properly label.

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