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Normal range WBC count in feline
Normal range of PCV in feline
Normal range of TSP in feline
Normal range of Hb in feline
3 Causes of icterus and what type of billirubin we see increased in each (direct/indirect)
- Blockage if bile ducts- indirect
- Increased intravascular RBC destruction- direct
- Liver disease- direct
What is the urine pigment called?
What is the fecal pigment called
Causes of increased TSP
- Protein losing enteropathy
- Post immunization
- Liver disease multiple myeloma
- Chronic antigenic stimulation
- Intravascular hemolysis
- Infection/ Inflammation
- Excessive protein diet
Causes of decreased TSP
- Liver disease
- Renal disease (losing protein)
Describe the apperance of toxic neutrophils
- foamy and basophilic cytoplasm
- may have dohle bodies
- hypersegmented nucleus
- pyknotic nucleus
Sodium is primarily found where?
High blood levels of sodium
Low blood levels of sodium
What are the roles of sodium in the body
- Water distribution
- Osmotic pressure
- pH regulation of urine
Potassium is primarily found where?
High blood levels of potassium
Low blood levels of potassium
Causes of hyperkalemia
cellular damage/ necrosis
Causes of hypokalemia
- inadequate intake
- fluid loss
What does potassium do for the body?
- Normal muscular function
- Nerve impulse transmission
- Cardiac function
- Carb metabolism
What does calcium do for the body
- Muscle contraction
- Maintenance of enzymes
- Blood coagulation
- Neuromuscular function
Causes of hypercalcemia
- Bone/ bone marrow tumors
- Tumors/ disease associated with parathyroid or thyroid glands
- Increased intake of vitamin D
What hormones keep calcium and phosphorus in balance?
What hormone raises calcium levels? How?
- increases reabsorbtion of calcium by the kidneys and GI tract, causes calcium to be mobilized from bone
What can falsely elevate phosphorus levels in the blood?
Where is alkaline phosphatase located?
- Inside osteoblasts and chondroblasts
- Intestine and placenta
In young animals, where does AP come from?
osteoblasts and chondroblasts b/c of active bone development
AP screening tests are most often used to detect what condition in adult animals?
Cholestasis (blockage of bile ducts)
Causes of increased AP
- Hepatobiliary issues associated with cholestasis
Where is CK (CPK) (Creatine Kinase) produced?
Striated muscle cells and brain
CK is a very highly specific test for what?
cardiac and skeletal muscle damage
What specifically can cause increased CK levels?
- IM injections
- Persistent recumbancy
- Vigorous exercise
- Electric shock
What does T4 do in the body?
Growth, syntheisis, metabolism in all body cells.
What sequence of hormones cause the release of T4?
The anterior pituitary secretes TSH which stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete T4.
Clinical signs of increased T4
- Weight loss
- Increased temp
- Increased appetite
Clinical signs of decreased T4
- Weight gain
- Coat and skin issues
- Cold intolerance
Do cats or dogs typically get hypothyroidism?
Increased phosphorus in the blood
List the three globulins, where is each made, what does each do?
- Alpha; liver; transport & bind
- Beta; liver; transport & bind
- Gamma; plasma cells; immunity
List the four urine collection methods
- Manual expression of bladder
Advantages of cystocentesis
Sterile sample in a normal animal
Disadvantage of cystocentesis
Requires adequate volume of urine to minimize damage to other internal structures
Causes of acidic urine
- Prolonged muscle activity; exercise
- Young, nursing animal
- Urinary acidifiers
- High protein diets
Causes of alkaline urine
- Delay in analysis (retained in bladder or outside)
- IV fluids containing sodium bicarb
- Metabolic or respiratory alkalosis
- High vegtable diet
What does the SG of urine indicate?
Ability of the kidneys to concentrate urine
List differences of HW infection in cat and dog.
- Microfilaria can live 2 years (5 in dogs)
- 8 mo. prepatent period (6 mo. in dogs)
- < 20% of cats have detectable microfilaria
- Adult burdens are less
- One adult can be fatal in cats
- Cats are more suseptible to arsenic than dogs
List HW preventatives and other parasites treated with them.
- Revolution (selemectin): Ear mites, hooks, rounds (cats only)
- Advantage Multi (imidicloprid & moxidectin): Adult fleas, ear mites, rounds, hooks
- Trifexis (mylbemycin & spinosad): hooks, whips, rounds, fleas dogs only
How is cystocentesis performed?
- Sterile prep
- 22/20 gauge needle x 1-1 1/2 in long
- 10 mL syringe
- Bladder is palpated and immobliized, needle inserted into the caudal abdomen. Aspirate urine into syringe and properly label.