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What digestion takes place in the mouth?
salivary amylase is secreted which digests starch to maltose for chemical digestion. Also chewing occurs which is a mechanical form of digestion.
What happens to ingested food in the esophagus?
peristalsis is the contraction of smooth muscles lining the esophagus and it leads to pushing the food bolus down the esophagus to the stomach by way of the cardiac sphincter
How is food digested in the stomach?
- HCl converts pepsinogen into pepsin, the active form of the enzyme which breaks down proteins.
- After digestion in the stomach, the material eaten is called chyme.
talk about the acidity of the stomach
gastric glands in the stomach secrete HCl which make it very acidic. the stomach is protected from this acid by the mucosal stomach lining. if there is a hole in the lining, that is how an ulcer can occur.
Talk about digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
chyme moves into the small intestine by way of the pyloric sphincter. Digestion and absorption happen in the small intestine. The 3 sections of the small intestine are the duodenum, jejunum, and the ileum.The small intestine produces lipase (lipid digestion), aminopeptidases (for polypeptide digestion), and disaccharidases (for digestion of maltose, lactose, and sucrose). The small intestine also secretes secretin which stimulates the release of sodium bicarbonate from the pancreas. The small intestine is lined with villi (capillaries and lacteals) which increase the surface area for absorption of nutrients into the blood.
Why is the small intestine lined with villi?
Increase the surface area to allow for greater absorption
What is lipase and where is it produced?
produced in the small intestine, lipase is responsible for the digestion of lipids.
What is aminopeptidase and where is it produced?
Produced in the small intestine, aminopeptidase aids in the digestion of polypeptides.
WHat is disaccharidase and where is it produced?
Produced in the small intestine, disacharidase is responsible for the digestion of maltose, lactose, and sucrose
What is secretin?
secretin is released by the small intestine and stimulates the pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate, which can neutralize the acidic chyme entering the duodenum from the stomach
What is the function of the liver? (5 main things)
- 1. storage of nutrients
- 2. DETOXIFICATION of certain chemicals from the blood stream
- 3. forms UREA
- 4. makes glycogen into glucose or vice versa depending on the body's needs
- 5. production of BILE (which is stored in the gallbladder and secreted in the small intestine)
What does urea do?
formed by the liver and is used by the kidneys to help make the urine not have too much water in it so the body can prevent dehydration
What does bile do? Where is it released?
Bile is released in the small intestine and is responsible for the emulsification of fats.
What is the role of the large intestine?
- Reabsorption of water
- E. Coli also inhabit the large intestine and produce vitamin K as well as help with food digestion
What does the pancreas do?
Secretes pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine like amylase (starch), trypsin and chymotrypsin (protein), pancreatic lipase (lipids) and sodium bicarbonate (to balance the overly acidic pH of the chyme in the small intestine)
What does amylase do and where is it found?
Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down starch into sugar. It is found in the saliva and also secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine.
What does trypsin do and where is it found?
Secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine, trypsin breaks apart proteins to aid in digestion
What does chymotrypsin do and where is it found?
Chymotrypsin is a protease that is capable of breaking down proteins once it is activated by trypsin. It is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine.
Which common sugar is a disaccharide and can be hydrolyzed into two molecules of glucose?
Where does the signal to breath (in humans) travel?
It originates in the medulla oblangata and travels down the PHRENIC nerve until it reaches the DIAPHRAGM
What is the larynx?
organ that makes sound in the neck, manipulates pitch and volume, etc.
What is the pharynx?
the part of the neck (throat) that is immediately behind the nose and mouth
What is the trachea?
Tube through which air passes
What are the bronchioles?
and they are the first part of the branching airway that no longer contain cartilage
What are the alveoli?
the membrane of the alveoli (found in the lungs) is the site for gas exchange. the alveoli are elastic and are able to stretch to fill with air when air is breathed in.
What is responsible for transporting O2 in the body?
hemoglobin in the blood
Decreased blood O2 →?
Increased blood CO2→?
Increased H+ conc. (aka decreased pH)→?
- Decreased blood O2 → increased breathing rate
- Increased blood CO2→ increased breathing rate
- Increased H+ conc. → increased breathing rate
Contraction of the diaphragm causes _______ to expand/deflate?
The diaphragm contracts to cause the thoracic cavity to expand and allow air to rush in.
Where are blood cells produced?
The bone marrow
4 blood components
- platelets (clotting)
- RBCs (carry O2)
- WBCs/lymphocytes (immunity)
- plasma (liquid part of blood)
What is the largest artery?
Where is bp higher, arteries or veins?
When is blood oxygenated and deoxygenated in the arteries?
Usually it is oxygenated in the arteries unless it is in the pulmonary arteries which means it is traveling away from the heart to go to the lungs to go get oxygenated
What are the largest, medium, and smallest veins?
Vena Cava, vein, venule
What connects arteries to veins?
Where is the site of gas exchange in the bvs?
What is the pathway of blood through the heart, body, etc. ?
- Superior and Inferior Vena Cavae→Right Atrium →Right Ventricle →Pulmonary Artery →Lungs→Pulmonary Vein →Left Atrium→Left Ventricle→Aorta→Body
What is the SA node?
the sinoatrial node is located over the right atrium and it causes the heart muscle to contract in rhythm.
How does clotting take place after a wound? (what is the cascade of events)
platelets release thromboplastin at the site near where the wound or injury is. Thromboplastin, Ca2+, and vitamin K all work together to create a cascade which results in the secretion and activation of thrombin from the precursor molecule prothrombin. Thrombin then causes fibrinogen to become fibrin, which creates a protein network like a web that traps red blood cells and prevents them from escaping.
protein produced by the body that binds to a foreign antigen
T CELLS (aka T lymphocytes)
3 kinds and function
- Helper T cells (activate B cells)
- Cytotoxic T cells (kill infected or precancerous cells directly)
- Suppressor T cells (regulate other immune cells)
B CELLS (aka b lymphocytes)
function and 2 types
- Humoral response- part of immunity regulated by antibodies secretion
- Plasma cells and memory cells: plasma cells produce antibodies, while memory cells are long-lived and allow the body to react quicker to the same foreign antigen if it presents itself again
ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE IMMUNITY
- active immunity is when you ar eexposed to something and your own body makes antibodies against the pathogen (i.e. a vaccine)
- passive immunity is when you are given antibodies not made by your own body in order to fight off a pathogen such as those acquired from the mother by the fetus or in an artificial transfer of antibodies to a new host
structure of a nerve cell
Prior to an action potential where is there more sodium and potassium in relation to the neuron?
- before an action potential, there is more Na+ outside of the cell
- and more K+ INSIDE of the cell
types of neurons (3) and funxns
- sensory neurons = afferent neurons
- motor neurons = efferent neurons
- interneurons = connect sensory and motor neurons
What are the divisions of the nervous system?
What does the sympathetic nervous system use as a neurotransmitter?
What does the parasympathetic nervous system use as a neurotransmitter?
Clusters of neurons are also known as ________
Where are haversian canals found?
In compact bone
What are the two types of bone and where are they found?
most bones have both type of bone tissue both hard and spongy. spongy bone is usually on the inside and is porous. compact bone is on the outside and is protective.
2 types of bone cells and what do they do
- osteoblasts- make bone
- osteoclasts- break down old bone
joints are lubricated by the secretions of the ________ _________ that lines the capsule
________ connects bones to bones
__________ connect muscle to bone
The point of attachment of a muscle to a stationary bone is called the __________.
The point of attachment of a muscle to a bone that moves is called the ___________.
________ indicates a straightening of a joint while _______ refers to a bending of a joint.
3 types of muscle, what system are they involved in (nervous system) and are they voluntary?
- Cardiac muscle- heart-involuntary-autonomic nervous system
- Smooth muscle-digestive system-involuntary-autonomic nervous system
- Skeletal muscle-voluntary- somatic nervous system
What makes up a muscle starting from the smallest units?
actin/myosin----- sarcomere------- myofibrils-------fibers-----------bundles-----------muscles
What part of the sarcomere is the I band, Z band, H band and A band
the thick filaments are myosin and the thin filaments are actin which slide past eachother for muscle contraction
What surrounds the myofibril?
A modified endoplasmic reticulum called the sarcoplasmic reticulum and it stores Ca ions and releases them during contraction of the muscle
Individual muscle fibers have an "_____ or _______" response
all or none response because they will be stimulated at a certain threshold.
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