Animals, Health and Disease

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  1. Messy Unbounded Problems
    • No solutions
    • Not sure what the problem is
    • Don't know what needs to be known
    • More people involved
    • Cannot be disentangled from context
    • Uncertain but worrying greater implications
    • Priorities called into question
    • Longer and uncertain timescales
  2. Messes:
    Wicked problems: complex, ill-defined, ambiguous, unstable issue
  3. Problems
    Well-formulated/defined issue, but with no single, unequivocal solution (only various different solutions depending on...)
  4. Puzzles
    Well-defined problem with a specific solution which can be worked out.
  5. Wicked Problem
    Is a phrase used in social planning to describe a problem that is difficult or impossible to solve because of incomplete, contradictory, and changing requirements that are often difficult to recognize. Moreover, because of complex interdependencies, the effort to solve on aspect of a wicked problem may reveal or create other problems
  6. Decision making
    • Alternatives
    • uncertainty
    • High-risk consequences
    • Interpersonal issue
    • Complexity
  7. 3 ways to deal with wicked problems
    • Mitigation: reduce wickedness with upstream research into the real root problems people experience. Success by design
    • Improvisation: Maintain flexibility and react quickly to feedback as you get it. Success by instinct

    Shotgun: rapidly try out many solutions to find out which ones gain the most traction, and repeat. Success by chance
  8. Superficial Layer
    This layer is easy to see, so little or no analysis is required
  9. Fundamental Layer
    This layer is difficult to see correctly, so digging deep with formal analysis is required. This includes high leverage points to find the ROOT CAUSES
  10. Levels of prevention
    • Primordial prevention: Establish or maintain conditions to minimise hazards to health
    • Primary prevention: prevent disease well before it develops. Reduce risk factors
    • Secondary prevention: early detection of disease (screening etc)
    • Tertiary prevention: treat established disease to prevent deterioration
  11. Health (Hippocrates lesson)
    Health is a product of how an animal (or herd or population) relates to the world around it
  12. Affects of health
    Interpersonal, organizational, community, public policy
  13. 3 foundations of health ****
    • To be healthy the following is needed:
    • 1. Access to the needs for everyday living
    • 2. Ability to deal with changes and stresses
    • 3. Ability to meet expectations
  14. 4 action areas for Health promotion
    • Provide the raw materials for health
    • Help people make good decisions
    • Get people working together towards health goals
    • Focus health services on health
  15. Summary- health as a wicked problem
    • Not easily or consistently defined
    • Affected by peoples behaviours
    • Varying social views and expectation
    • No single shared goal
    • Many factors interacting to result in health outcomes
    • More than one organization and person involved
    • Affecting one animals health can have affects on other animals, people and/or the environment
Card Set:
Animals, Health and Disease
2013-09-25 04:13:05
Lecture one

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