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2013-09-25 10:09:30
Skeletal system skull bones marrow

Identify and locate the bones of the human body Describe the anatomy of bone Describe the physiology of bone Describe the growth of bone
Show Answers:

  1. Skeletal System includes what



  2. What are the two skeletal sections
    Axial Skeleton 

    ◦Form longitudinal axis

    Appendicular skeleton

    • ◦Bones of limbs and girdles
  3. What are the five functions of bone
    Support the body

    Protection - soft body organs, skull (brain), vertebrae (spinal cord), rib cage (thorax)

    • Movement-
    • Attach to tendons, use bones as levers(due to attached skeletal muscles)

    Storage - Fat is stored in marrow, minerals (Ca, P)

    • Blood cell formation - In marrow
    • BuMPSS
  4. What are the two types of bone
    • ◦Compact bone
    • –Dense and smooth: homogeneous

    • ◦Spongy bone
    • –Small needle-like pieces of bone and many
    • open spaces
  5. What are the Four bone classifications
    • Long bones
    • Short bones
    • Flat bones
    • Irregular bones
  6. Describe Long bones
    • ◦Typically longer than wide
    • ◦Have a shaft with heads at both ends ◦Contain mostly compact bone
    • ◦Ex. Femur, Humerus (all bones of limbs, except patella, wrist and ankle bones)
  7. Describe Short bones
    • ◦General cube-shaped
    • ◦Mostly spongy bone
    • ◦Ex. Carpals, tarsals (wrist, ankle, patella)
  8. Describe Flat bones
    • ◦Thin and flattened
    • ◦Usually curved
    • ◦Two thin layers of compact bone sandwiching a layer of spongy bone between them
    • ◦Ex. Skull, ribs and sternum
  9. Describe Irregular bones
    • ◦Irregular shape
    • ◦Do not fit any other bone category
    • ◦Ex. Hip, Vertebrae
  10. What are the gross anatomy parts of the long bone
    Diaphysis: Shaft,  compact bone

    Epiphysis: Ends of bone, spongy

    Periosteum: Outside covering of diaphysis, fibrous connective tissue membrane

    Sharpey’s Fibers (perforating): Secures periosteum to underlying bone

    Arteries: Supply bone cells with nutrients

    • Articular Cartilage: Covers external surface of the epiphyses
    • -- Made of hyaline cartilage
    • -- Decreases friction at joint surfaces

    • Medullary Cavity: Cavity of the shaft
    • -- Contains yellow marrow (fat in adults)
    • -- Contains red marrow (for blood cell formation in infants)

  11. Articular cartilage
    Proximal epiphysis
    Epiphyseal line
    Medullary cavity (lined by endosteum)
    Distal Epiphysis

  12. Compact bone
    Yellow bone marrow
    Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
    Nutrient arteries
    Articular Cartilage

  13. What are Bone Markings
    Surface features of bones

    Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons and ligaments

    Passages for nerves and blood vessels
  14. What are the categories of bone markings
    ◦Projections and processes- grown out from the bone surface

    ◦Depressions or cavities-indentations

    ◦Holes and Tunnels - Where blood and nerves enter bone
  15. What are the bone marking projections that are the site of muscle and ligament attachments
    Tuberosity - rounded projection

    Crest - narrow, prominent ridge of bone

    Trochanter - large, blunt, irregular surface

    Line - narrow ridge of bone

    Tubercle - small rounded projection

    Epicondyle - raised area above a condyle

    Spine - sharp, slender projection

    Process - any bone prominence
  16. What are the bone markings projections from joints
    Head - bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

    Facet - smooth, nearly flat articular surface

    Condyle - rounded articular projection

    Ramus - armlike bar of bone
  17. What are the bone markings depressions and openings
    Meatus - canal-like passageway

    Sinus - cavity within a bone

    Fossa - shallow, basin-like depression

    Groove - furrow (slight indentation)

    Fissure - narrow, slit-like opening

    Foramen - round or oval opening through a bone
  18. What is an Osteocytes
    • Mature bone cells found within the matrix in tiny cavities called lacunae
  19. What is an Osteon
    • A unit of bone consisting of a central (Haversian) canal and matrix rings also known as Haversian system
  20. What is Lacunae
    • Tiny cavities found in the bone matrix with osteocytes
  21. What are perforating (Volkmann's) canals
    • Communication pathways from the outside of the bone to its interior and the central canals that run into the compact canals at right angles
  22. What is Central canal (Haversian)
    ◦Opening in the center of an osteon

    • ◦Carries blood vessels and nerves
  23. What is Lamellae
    • ◦Ring saround the central canal
    • ◦Sites of Lacunae
  24. What are Canaliculi
    ◦Tiny canals

    ◦Radiate from the central canal to lacunae

    • ◦Form a transport system
  25. Where does cartilage remain once a person is fully grown
    ◦Bridge of the nose

    ◦Parts of the ribs

  26. What are Epiphyseal plates
    Allow for growth of long bone during childhood
  27. What are the three types of bone cells; two are involved in bone growth
    Osteocystes: Mature Bone Cells

    Osteoblasts: Bone-forming Cells

    Osteoclasts: Bone-destroying Cells
  28. What are the four steps in bone fracture repair
    1.Hematoma is formed (blood-filled swelling)

    2.Break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus

    3.Fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bony callus

    4.Bony callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch
  29. What three parts is the axial skeleton divided into

    ◦Vertebral Column

    • ◦Bony thorax
  30. What are Fontanelles
    Fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones of infants

    ◦Allows brain to grow

    ◦Converts to bone within 24months of birth
  31. What is special about the Hyoid bone
    The only bone that does not articulate with another bone

    Serves as a moveable base for the tongue
  32. What are Paranasal Sinuses
    Hollow portions of bones surround the nasal cavity

    Lightens the skull

    Give resonance and amplification to voice
  33. What are the bones of the vertebral column
    • Cervical (neck region)
    • ◦C1-C7: Allows for nodding and pivoting of head

    • Thoracic (Only vertebrae to articulate with the ribs)
    • ◦T1-T12: Heart-shaped

    • Lumbar 
    • ◦L1-L5: Massive block-like bodies
    • ◦Sturdiest of the vertebrae

    • Sacrum 
    • ◦Formed via fusion of 5 vertebrae

    • Coccyx
    • ◦Formed via fusion of 3-5 tiny irregular shaped vertebrae
  34. What are the three parts of the bony thorax
    Forms a cage to protect major organs

    Made-up of three parts


    ◦Ribs (24)

    • ◦Thoracic vertebrae
    • -- 7 pairs true

    -- 3 pairs false

    • -- 2 pairs floating
  35. What are the parts of the Appendicular

    Pectoral girdle(shoulder)

    • Pelvic girdle
  36. What two bones is the pectoral girdle made of
    ◦Clavicle (collarbone)

    • ◦Scapula (shoulder blade)
  37. What are the bones of the upper limb
    • The arm:
    • -- Humerus

    • Forearm: 
    • -- Ulna(inner) 
    • -- Radius(outer)

    • Hand: 
    • -- Carpals(wrist);
    • -- Metacarpals (palm) 
    • -- Phalanges (fingers)
  38. What are the bones of the pelvic girdle
    • Composed of three pairs of fused bones:
    • -- Ilium,
    • -- Ischium
    • -- Pubic bone
  39. What are the bones of the lower limb
    • Thigh:
    • -- Femur

    • Leg 2 bones:
    • -- Tibia (inner)
    • -- Fibula (outer)

    • Foot:
    • -- Tarsus (ankle);
    • -- Metatarsals (sole);
    • -- Phalanges (toes)
  40. What is the functional classification of joints
    • Synarthroses
    • -- immovable joints

    • Amphiarthroses
    • -- slightly moveable joints, spine

    • Diarthroses
    • -- freely moveable joints, limbs
  41. What is the structural classification of joints
    • Fibrous joints:
    • -- Generally immovable

    • Synovial joints:
    • -- Freely moveable

    • Cartilaginous joints:
    • -- Immovable or slightly moveable
  42. What are fibrous joints
    Bones united by fibrous tissue

    -- Sutures

    -- Syndesmoses (Allows for more movement then sutures (distal end of tibia and fibula)
  43. What are Cartilaginous joints
    Bones connected by cartilage

    -- Pubic symphysis

    -- Intervertebral joints
  44. What are synovial joints
    Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity

    Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity

    Articulare cartilage (hylaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones

    Joint surfaces are enclosed by a fibrous articular capsule

    Have a joint cavity filled with synovial fluid

    Ligaments reinforce the joint
  45. What two structures are associated with synovial joints
    • Bursa:
    • -- Flattened fibrous sacs

    -- Lines with synovial membranes

    -- Filled with synovial fluid

    -- Not actually part of the joint

    • Tendon sheath:
    • -- elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon