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resistance to disease
study of system of cells, tissues, molecules that combat infections/respond to invading pathogens
What are the 3 lines of defense?
- external barriers-that keep microbes out
- nonspecific-internal (innate) combat all microbes
- adaptive-against specific microbes
Which is the first line of defense?
- innate response
- includes nonspecific defense mechs
- operates constantly
What 4 things does innate response include?
- physical barriers
What does the innate response lack?
- it lacks memory
- no enhance response to recurrent infections
What are the components of innate response?
- natural killer cells
- toll-like receptors
- inflammatory response
What is the % of the pop cells?
What do NKCs do?
- destroy tumor cells and cells infected w/ viruses
- sees every cell as a threat unless told otherwise
What is the NKC signal used/where?
- MHC CLass I molecule
If no MHC detected what happens?
NKC insert perforin molecule into infected cell
Which cells are then destroyed?
Antibody-depedent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
What do TLRs recognize?
PAMP (pathogenic associated molecule patterns)
What do PAMPs bind to?
- these receptors then present ligands to TLRs
What are the 5 examples of PAMPs? Bind to?
- LSP: TLR-4
- Flagellin: TLR-5
- dsRNA: TLR-3
- ssRNA: TLR-7/-8
- CpG DNA: TLR-9
- PAMPs bind to LTR
What happens after PAMP binding to TLR?
sign activates transcription factors
What does activation factors stimulate?
production of NF-kB and IRF-3
What does NF-kB stimulate?
What does IRF-3 stimulate?
Type 1 IFN
What does the complement involve?
26 proteins activated sequentially (cascade)
What is the cascade known as?
the effector molecule
What are the 3 pathways in the complement response?
classical, alternative, lectin
What does the alternate pathways do?
activation on microbial surface
What does the classical pathway do?
Fc portion antibody (Ab) binds to microbial surfaces
What does the lectin pathway do?
plasma protein binds mannose (LPS in core/O antigen)
What do the 3 pathways all result in?
prod of mol involved in inflammatory response (C3/C5 cleaved), opsonization, lysis of cell memb
- att of mol on cell memo as signal for phagocytosis
- reqs C3b
Cytokines are more what?
Systemic that hormones
What are cytokines?
small proteins made by cells that reg responses of other cells
What immunity are cytokines involved in?
both innate and adaptive immunity
What 4 families are in cytokines?
hematopoietin, interferon, chemokine, tumor necrosis
What are the two types of interferons?
- Type I-most active vs viral infections
- Type II-antitumor response
What are in Type I interferons?
What are in Type II interferons?
- modulates immune response
- T lymphocytes
Class I and II involve what?
signal transduction pathways
What does the inflammatory response do?
- microbe penetrates barrier
- caps dilate (mast cells release cytokines)
- blood flow ^ (rub or/calor)
- ^ cap perm (tumor/dolor)
- WBC exit cap& gather at injury site
What is the entry in phagocytosis called?
What are the steps in phagocytosis?
att, ingest, fusion to form phagolysosome, killing in phagolysosome, digestion