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2013-09-25 20:38:35

Exam 1
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  1. Immunity
    resistance to disease
  2. immunology
    study of system of cells, tissues, molecules that combat infections/respond to invading pathogens
  3. What are the 3 lines of defense?
    • external barriers-that keep microbes out
    • nonspecific-internal (innate) combat all microbes 
    • adaptive-against specific microbes
  4. Which is the first line of defense?
    • innate response 
    • includes nonspecific defense mechs
    • operates constantly 
  5. What 4 things does innate response include?
    • physical barriers 
    • complement 
    • cytokines
    • inflammation
  6. What does the innate response lack?
    • it lacks memory 
    • no enhance response to recurrent infections
  7. What are the components of innate response?
    • natural killer cells
    • toll-like receptors 
    • complement 
    • cytokines
    • inflammatory response 
  8. What is the % of the pop cells?
  9. What do NKCs do?
    • destroy tumor cells and cells infected w/ viruses
    • sees every cell as a threat unless told otherwise 
  10. What is the NKC signal used/where?
    • MHC CLass I molecule 
    • surface
  11. If no MHC detected what happens?
    NKC insert perforin molecule into infected cell
  12. Which cells are then destroyed?
    Antibody-depedent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)
  13. What do TLRs recognize?
    PAMP (pathogenic associated molecule patterns)
  14. What do PAMPs bind to?
    • CD36/CD14
    • these receptors then present ligands to TLRs
  15. What are the 5 examples of PAMPs? Bind to?
    • LSP: TLR-4
    • Flagellin: TLR-5
    • dsRNA: TLR-3
    • ssRNA: TLR-7/-8
    • CpG DNA: TLR-9
    • PAMPs bind to LTR
  16. What happens after PAMP binding to TLR? 
    sign activates transcription factors 
  17. What does activation factors stimulate?
    production of NF-kB and IRF-3
  18. What does NF-kB stimulate?
    cytokine production 
  19. What does IRF-3 stimulate?
    Type 1 IFN
  20. What does the complement involve?
    26 proteins activated sequentially (cascade)
  21. What is the cascade known as?
    the effector molecule 
  22. What are the 3 pathways in the complement response?
    classical, alternative, lectin
  23. What does the alternate pathways do?
    activation on microbial surface 
  24. What does the classical pathway do?
    Fc portion antibody (Ab) binds to microbial surfaces 
  25. What does the lectin pathway do?
    plasma protein binds mannose (LPS in core/O antigen) 
  26. What do the 3 pathways all result in?
    prod of mol involved in inflammatory response (C3/C5 cleaved), opsonization, lysis of cell memb 
  27. Opsonization
    • att of mol on cell memo as signal for phagocytosis
    • reqs C3b
  28. Cytokines are more what?
    Systemic that hormones 
  29. What are cytokines?
    small proteins made by cells that reg responses of other cells
  30. What immunity are cytokines involved in?
    both innate and adaptive immunity 
  31. What 4 families are in cytokines?
    hematopoietin, interferon, chemokine, tumor necrosis 
  32. What are the two types of interferons?
    • Type I-most active vs viral infections 
    • Type II-antitumor response
  33. What are in Type I interferons?
    • IFN-alpha 
    • leucocytes
    • IFN-beta
    • Fibroblasts
  34. What are in Type II interferons?
    • modulates immune response 
    • IFN-gamma
    • T lymphocytes
  35. Class I and II involve what?
    signal transduction pathways
  36. What does the inflammatory response do?
    • microbe penetrates barrier
    • caps dilate (mast cells release cytokines)
    • blood flow ^ (rub or/calor)
    • ^ cap perm (tumor/dolor)
    • WBC exit cap& gather at injury site 
  37. What is the entry in phagocytosis called?
  38. What are the steps in phagocytosis?
    att, ingest, fusion to form phagolysosome, killing in phagolysosome, digestion