chapter 1 biol

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chapter 1 biol
2013-09-28 06:36:06

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  1. Anatomy
    the study of the structure of the human body +these structures of the human body make the functions of physiology possible
  2. Physiology
    the study of the function of the human body
  3. what is the order of levels of organization of the human body?
    subatomic particles,atom,molecule,macromolecule,organelle,cell,tissue,organ,organ system,organism
  4. subatomic particles
    electrons, protons, and neutrons
  5. atom
    smallest particle of a chemical element retaining its properties; made up of nucleus(protons and neutrons) and electrons
  6. molecule
    two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
  7. macromolecule
    very large molecule(protein)
  8. organelle
    composed of macromolecules & smaller molecules,carries out specific activities in cells
  9. cell
    basic unit of structure and function of human body
  10. tissue
    layer or mass of cells with specific function
  11. organ
    two or more tissues with a specialized function
  12. organ system
    group of organs that function closely together
  13. organism
    made up of interacting organ systems
  14. characteristics of life are
  15. movement
    change in position;motion
  16. responsiveness
    reaction to change
  17. growth
    increase in body size
  18. reproduction
    production of new organisms and new cells
  19. respiration
    obtaining oxygenO2 and removing carbon dioxideCO2 releasing energy from foods
  20. digestion
    breakdown of food substances into simplar forms
  21. absorption
    passage of substances through membranes and into body fluids
  22. circulation
    movement of substances in body fluids
  23. assimilation
    changing of absorbed substances into chemically different forms
  24. excretion
    removal of wastes produced by metabolic reactions
  25. metabolism
    all of the chemical reactions in cells; makes possible all of the above
  26. bacteria,amoeba and other protists are what
    unicellular and depend on conditions in external environment for life activities
  27. what are humans composed of
    10 trillion human cells in the internal environment of the human body
  28. homeostasis does what
    maintains the stable environment through homeostatic control mechanisms
  29. receptor
    provides info about a condition in the internal environment (thermoreceptors in skin and hypothalamus)
  30. control center
    tells what the condition should be (set point)(hypothalamus)
  31. effector
    elicits response that changes the condition in the internal enviroment(skin,sweat glands & blood vessels)
  32. negative feedback
    deviation from the set point is corrected and correction reduces the action of effectors(most common feedback)
  33. what is normal range
    physiological values that vary within a healthy person and between healthy people falling within normal range
  34. positive feedback
    increases and accelerates actions of the body-positive feedback mechanisms are shortlived-controls only infrequent events that do not require continuous adjustments example bloodclotting&childbirth
  35. negative feedback
    prevents sudden,severe changes in the body,causes opposite of bodily disruption to occur ie the neg-brings a condition of the internal environment back to set point-most common type of feedback loop-examples blood pressure,body temp,glucose regulation
  36. precisely defined latin/greek terms
    used by anatomists to describe body regions,relative positions&directions,and body sections, as well as major body cavities and their subdivisions
  37. anatomical position
    reference position of the human body for anatomical terminology
  38. supine and prone
    • supine-person lying face up
    • prone-person face down
  39. cephalic
  40. cranial
  41. facial
  42. fronal
  43. orbital/ocular
  44. otic
  45. nasal
  46. oral
  47. buccal
  48. mental
  49. cervical
  50. thoracic
  51. mammary
  52. axillary
  53. brachial
  54. olecranal/cubital
  55. antebrachial
  56. carpel
  57. manual
  58. palmar
    palm of hand
  59. digits
    fingers and toes
  60. pollex
  61. acromical
  62. dorsal
  63. lumbar
    lower back
  64. abdominal
    between thorax and pelvis
  65. umbilical
  66. inguinal
  67. pubic/genital
    reproductive organs
  68. gluteal
  69. femoral
  70. patellar
    front of knee
  71. popliteal
    back of knee
  72. crural
  73. sural
    calf of leg
  74. tarsel
  75. pedal
  76. calcaneal
    heal of foot
  77. plantar
    sole of foot
  78. digits
    fingers and toes
  79. hallux
    big toe
  80. superior
    above or closer to head
  81. inferior
    below or towards feet
  82. anterior(ventral)
    towards the front
  83. posterior(dorsal)
    towards the back
  84. medial
    closer to the midline
  85. lateral
    farther from the midline
  86. bilateral
    paired one on each side
  87. lpsilateral
    on the same side
  88. contralateral
    structures on the opposite sides
  89. proximal
    closer to the trunk
  90. distal
    farther from the trunk
  91. superficial
    nearer to the surface
  92. deep
    further from the surface
  93. why do we have body sections
    to observe relative locations and arrangements of the internal organs -sectioning the body along various planes
  94. sagittal
    divides the body into left and right portions
  95. midsagittal
    passes along the midline, divides the body into equal right and left portions
  96. parasagittal
    passes lateral to the midline
  97. transverse(horizontal)
    divides the body into superior and inferior portions
  98. frontal(coronal)
    divides the body into anterior and posterior portions
  99. cross section
    cut across structure(perpendicular to long axis)
  100. oblique section
    angular cut at <90 angle across long axis
  101. longitudinal section
    lengthwise cut along long axis
  102. axial portion
  103. appendicular portion
    upper and lower limbs
  104. body cavities r in
    axial portion
  105. cranial cavity
    enclosed in skull; contains brain
  106. vertebral canal
    enclosed by vertebral column; contains spinal cord
  107. thoracic cavity(contains)
    enclosed in ribcage contains lungs-mediastinum(heart,esophagus,trachea*separated by diaphragm from abdominopelvic cavity
  108. abdominalpelvic cavity( contains)
    • abdominal cavity-stomach,gallbladder,liver,spleen,small and large intestines
    • pelvic cavity-pelvic bones terminal end of large intestine,urinary bladder,and internal reproductive organs
  109. head cavities
    cranial cavity-oral cavity-nasal-sinuses-orbital cavities-middle ear cavities
  110. cranial cavity
    contains brain
  111. oral cavity
    contains teeth and tongue
  112. nasal cavity
    contains nasal conchae(scoll-like bones) covered by mucous membrane connected to sinus membrane
  113. sinus membrane
    fronal and sphenoidal sinuses
  114. orbital cavities
    contains eyes and associated muscles and nerves
  115. middle ear cavities
    contain middle ear bones
  116. serious membranes
    • like the walls of thoracic and abdominal cavities and fold BACK TO COVER ORGANS with these cavities-they secret slippery serous fluid that separates
    • parietal layer-lines cavity wall
    • potential cavity
    • visceral layer-covers organ
  117. pleura
    surrounds lungs-viseral pleura-pleural cavity-parietal pleura
  118. pericardium
    surrounds the heart-viseral pericardium-pericardial cavity-pariatal pericardium-fibrous pericardium
  119. peritoneum
    surrounds all organs in abdominopelvic cavity-viseral peritoneum-peritoneal cavity-perietal peritoneum
  120. organ systems body covering
    skin and assesory organs(hair,nails,skin glands
  121. organ systems support&movement
    • skeletal system-bones carterlage ligaments,produces bloods cells,including cells of the immune system
    • muscular system-maintain posture, circulate blood, support movement
  122. organ systems-integration and coordination
    • nervious system:brain,spinal cord,nerves,sense organs,nerve cells generate and transmit eletrochemical signals(action potentials)
    • endocrine system:endocrine glands scattered thruout the body secrete chemical signals(hormones carried out by blood)
  123. organ systems transport
    • cardiovascular-heart,blood vessels,bloos,contains cells of immune system
    • lympatic system-lymphatic vessels,lymph,lymph nodes,spleen,thymus(in juveniles)contains cells of the immune system
  124. organ system absorption and excertion
    • digestive;ingestion,digestion,absorption of food,elimination of feces
    • respiratory system;gas exchange in blood and air o2 absorbed and co2 released
    • urinary system;removal of waste from blood,maintenance of water and electrolyte balence
  125. organ system reporduction
    • male-produces male sex cells(sperm) and transfers them to female reproductive system
    • female-produces sex cells(eggs) receives male sex cells, supports development of fertilized egg into newborn
  126. aging is
    the process of becoming mature and then old,occurs microscopic to whole body levels,body reaches limited number of predetermined cell divisions
  127. predetermined cell divisions causes what
    loss of hair color*reduced production of pigment-wrinling and stiffening of skin*reduced production of connective tissue proteins(collagen and elastin)-slowed metabolism (sensitivity to cold&fatigue)due to reduced secretion from thyroid-weakened immune system-reduced production of immune cells
  128. centenarian either
    • never get diseases(heart diesease or cancer)20%
    • get these diseases much older 40%
    • survive these diseases 40%
  129. chemistry
    the study of composition of substances and how they change
  130. bichemistry
    chemistry of living organisms
  131. matter
    • anything that has mass and takes up space; composed of elements
    • -exists as solid (constant shape & volume),liquid(constant volume),or gas
  132. element
    fundamental substance, can not be broken down or transformed by chemical means; 94 occur in nature
  133. compound
    substance made up of several chemically combined elements
  134. human body requires
    • bulk elements 99.9% o,c,h,n& others
    • trace elements(<0.1%-I,Fe,& others
    • ultra trace elements toxic in large amounts example as
  135. chemical bond
    atoms combine  with other atoms of the same elemet or other elements
  136. nucleus
    • protons 1 or more +1 eletrical charge;1 atomic mass unit(amu)
    • neutrons none or more electrically neutral; 1 atomic mass unit(amu)
  137. electrons
    one or more;-1 electrical chanrge; 1/2,000 (negligible)
  138. atomic number
    # of protons(determines atomic number)=# of electrons; unique to each element(3Li)
  139. mass number
    (amu) number of protons+# of neutrons(7Li)
  140. # of neutrons
    mass number -atomic number
  141. isotopes
    atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons and therefore,mass numbers;have identical chemical properties;example: 126c,136c
  142. radioactive isotopes
    nucleus decays spontaneously,giving off particles and energy(atomic radiation) 146c*147n
  143. types of atomic radiation
    • (alpha)-42He2+; travel slowly and can not easily penetrate matter
    • (beta)-e-;travel faster and penetrate more deeply
    • (gamma)high energy photon(similar to x-ray);most pentrating
  144. atomic weight
    average mass number that reflects proportions of different isotopes;usually close to mass number of most common elelment
  145. molecular weight
    (element or compound)=sum of atomic weights of molecules atoms
  146. mole
    quality of weight(g) equals to atomic weight (amu) of element or molecular weight(amu) of molecule;contains 6*1023 atoms/molecules-1 mol of H weights 1.01g; 1 mol of C weights 12.01g
  147. molecule 
    • two or more atoms joined by chemical bonds
    • ex:molecules of elements of H2,O2,N2
    • ex:molecules of compounds(h20,C6H12O6,CH4,C2H5OH)
  148. molecule formula
    describes types and numbers of atoms in a molecule
  149. chemical bonds
    result from interactions of elements
  150. electron shells
    • 1st shell(closest to nucleus) 2 electrons
    • 2nd shell 8 electrons
    • 3rd shell 8 electrons(when outermost
    • *electrons closest to nucleus filled 1st
  151. in what way do atoms react with the outer most shell 
    • leaves the outermost shell completely filled with electrons by gaining, loosing, or sharing electrons
    • *shells with filled outer shells (he) are cemically inactive
  152. ions
    atoms that gain or loose electrons become electronically charged
  153. cations
    atoms with one or two electrons in their outer shell tend to loose them to complete their outer shell,becoming positively charged (na+)
  154. anions
    atoms with 7 electrons tend to gain an electron to complete their outer shell becoming neg charged anions(cl-)
  155. ionic bonds
    cations and ions attract causing ionic compounds held by ionic bonds naci solid crystles at room temp,(does not esists as molecules)molecular formula indicates the relative amounts of each element
  156. covalent bonds
    form between two atoms sharing 1-3 pairs of electrons to complete their outer shell
  157. single covalent bond
    • each pair of shared electrons
    • *each element form a specific number of covalent bonds, based on the number of electrons in their outer shell
  158. non-polar covalent bonds
    electron pairs shared equally(molecule of elements CH4)
  159. polar covalent bond
    electron pairs shared unequally (h2o)
  160. polar molecules
    molecules held together by polar covalent bonds are polar.having parcial positive and neg charges at different ends and can form weak hydrogen bonds
  161. chemical reactions
    form or break between atoms,ions, or molecules
  162. synthesis
  163. decomposition
  164. exchange
  165. irreverable
  166. reversable
    • a+b=ab
    • direction depends on relative concentrations of reactants and products and the amount of energy available
  167. catalysist
    substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed;does not affect direction
  168. solution
    mixture of two or more substances,with one substance(solvent) present in greater quality than others(s) (solute(s)
  169. where do biochemical reactions occur?
    h20 with the polar h20molecule being the solvent
  170. water soluble(hydrophilic)
    polar molecules and ions form hydrogen bonds with h20 molecules
  171. water insoluble(hydrophobic)
    substances non-polar molecules repelled by h20 molecules as they form hydrogen bonds with each other
  172. colloid
    aquenous solution of large molecules(proteins)which remain in suspension indefinitely;example jell-o
  173. suspension
    mixture of large particles(sand) with h20,which eventually settle out of solution due to gravity
  174. acids bases and salts
  175. electrolytes
    contains electrically charged particles(ions)=conducts electric current;substances that release ions in h20 are called electrolytes
  176. acids
    release h+ hcl=h+ +cl-
  177. bases
    • release ions that combine with h+ naoh=na+ + oh-
    • h+ + oh- =h20
  178. bases
    • react with acids to neutralize them forming h20 and salts
    • hcI+naoh=h20+nacl
  179. ph scale
    • indicates h+ consentration ph=-log10[H+(mol/]
    • body melabolic 7.35-7.45
  180. buffers
    chemicals (carbonic acid/bicarbonate ion) that resist pH changes H2O3=HCO3-+H+
  181. chem consititutes of cells
    inorganic,h20,O2,co2,inorganic salts,organic compounds (w/t h and c) carbs,lipids,proteins nucleic acids
  182. h20
    2/3 of body weight major compoinent of body fluids,universal solvent most metabolic reactions occure in solution,transport medium for cells,substances,and heat
  183. o2
    enters internal enviroment thru respiratory organs ,carried by bloods to tissues-used by cellular organelles(mitrohondria) to release energy from nutrient molecules
  184. co2
    produced as waste product during energy release from nutrient molecules,carried by blood from tissues; leaves internal enviroment thru respiratory organs
  185. inorganic salts
    abundant in body fluids; sources of nessary ions (na+,cl-,k+,ca+2,po4-3)
  186. carbohydrates
    • formula CnH2nOn water soluble
    • sugars monosaccharides,disaccharides,polysaccharides
  187. monosaccharides
    5-carbon:ribose deoxyribose,6 carbon:glucose frutose
  188. disaccharides
    • consists of 2 6 carbon units
    • sucrose(table sugar)
    • lactose(milk sugar)
  189. polysaccharides
    • consists/are polymers of multiple glucose units (monomers) 
    • plants:cellulose,starch
    • animals:glycogen
  190. carbohydrate use
    • liver converts frutose and galactose into glucose used by cells for energy
    • nerve cells require for survival
    • cells use as starting materials for synthesizing 5carbon sugars ribose and deoxyribose-part of nucleic acid
    • excess glucose is stored as glycogen in liver and muscles(limited) and as fat
  191. lipds
    • fats/triglycerides-glycerol connected to 3 fatty acids
    • saturated fats 
    • unstaturated fats
    • phospolipds
    • steroids
  192. saturated fats
    butter fatty acids no double bond solid at room temp increase risk of artherosclerosis
  193. unsaturated
    • fatty acid double bonds
    • unstaturated with double bonds veggie oils increse risk of artherosis less than sat. fats
    • tran unstaurated(margerine) increase more than saturated
  194. phopholipds
    • glycerol connected to 2 water insoluble(hydrophobic)fatty acids and water soluable (hydrophilic) phosphate group
    • phospholipid bilayers form cell membranes
  195. steroids
    • 4 fused carbon rings 
    • cholesterol-part of membranes precursor of several hormones(chemical messengers of the endocrine system)
  196. beta oxidation
    breaks down fatty acids in 2 carbon segments converting into acetyl coenzyme a,which is used by cells to generate energy(part of pathway starting glucose)
  197. glycerol
    can be converted to acetyl CoA or glucose
  198. fat
    excess glycerol and fatty acids plus glucose and amino acids are stored as fat main form of energy in the body makes twice as energy as a gram or protein or carb
  199. essential fatty acid(linoleic acid) 
    can not be synthesized by the liver(unlike most fatty acids)must be provided in diet(corn oil)
  200. proteins
    • most diverse group of organic compounds in human body 200,000 are polymers of multiple amino acids(monomers) made up of centeral c covalently bond to amino group(n-nh2),carboxal group(-COOH),H atom,R group-distinguishes 20 amino acids
    • joined by covalent peptid bonds between amino group & carboxl group into polypeptides
  201. proteins function as
    function enzymes(catalize metabolic reaction),structural materials(collagen,elastin) chemical messager(hormones),cell surface receptors(in combo wiith carb(glycoproteins)immune system(anti-bodies),allow muscle contraction(myosin&actin)
  202. protein sourses
    meats fish poultry milk cheese eggs nuts cerials
  203. essentials amino acids
    • 8 amino(out of 20) that cannot be synthesized by the body,must be provided in diet
    • provided by complete proteins(meat)
    • many plant proteins are incomplete;combining appropriate plant foods(beans and rice) provides all essential amino acids
    • digestive system breaks down proteins to amino acids(hydrolysis) which are absorbed into blood)
    • amino acids are used,primarily,to synthesize bodys own protein
  204. protein structure
    primary structure,covalent bonds,secondary structure,tertiary structure,quaternary structure
  205. primary
    sequence of amino acids held together by covalent bonds between carboxyl and amino groups; determined by inherited genetic information
  206. secondary structure
    a helixes and b pleated sheets held together by hydrogen bonds between carboxyl and amino groups
  207. tertiary structure
    polypeptide structure resulting from interactions of r groups(hydrophobic interactions,hydrogen and ionic bonds,and covalent disulfide brides between cysteines)
  208. quaternary structure
    aggregation of multiple polypedtide subunits held together by hydrogen & ionic bonds and hydrophobic interactions
  209. protein denature
    phanged in ph salt concentration and temp can cause loss of 3d shape and bio function it can be reversable or irreversable
  210. nucleic acids
    deoxyribonucletic acid dna and ribonucleic acid rna consist of multiple nucleotides(monomers)
  211. dna
    • stores genetic info about primary structure of proteins(genes)
    • double helix  two poly nucleo tides held by hydrogen bonds between paired bases
  212. rna
    • translates genetic information into polypeptide sequences dna-rna-protein
    • single poly nucleotide
  213. nucleotide consists
    • nitrogenous bases 1 or 2 ring distinguish 4 dna and 4 rna nucleotides
    • 5carbon sugars ribose and deoxyribose
    • phosphate group
  214. sugar phosphate backbone
    adjacient nucleotides joined by convalent bonds between sugars and phosphate groups
  215. base pairing
    • only certain base pairs can form stable hydrogen bonds within dna double helix or between mrna and dna a-t(a-u) and gc
    • complementary dna strands allow semi con servative reproduction
  216. metabolism 
    sum total of chem reactions in the cell 
  217. enzyme
    • controls rate of reaction in metabolism and is a cataytic protein
    • 37cbiochem reactions r slow so enzymes are used to increase rate by lowering activation energy that is required to ender unstable transition state
    • they dont change direction of reaction and are specific to a specific reaction
    • the rate of enzyme-catalizzed increases with reactants until saturated
  218. anabolism
    • consumes energy to build complex molecules
    • involving dehydration
  219. catabolism
    releases energy(exergonic) by breaking down complex molecules to simple.*hydrolysis
  220. enzyme-substrate complex
    • substrate is a reactant that binds to active site of enzzyme starting the reaction causing it to change shape(induced fit),formig enzyme-substrate complex reacttant are then converted to products and released from the active site
    • the specificity is from fit between active site and substrate
    • the enzyme 3d shape determines configuration of active site
  221. specific ranges of t and ph
    37c and 7.4 for most human enzymes) favor the most active shape of enzyme molecule; enzyme are inactivated by t and ph out side those ranges
  222. cofactors
    non-protein molecules required for catalytic activity of many enzymes*coenzymes organic cofactor which are most vitamins or coenzyme precursers; can not be synthesized at all or in sufficient amounts by human body and must come from diet
  223. inhibitors
    chemicals that selectively inhibit action of specific enzymes
  224. reversable
    bind to enzyme by weak bonds(most inhibitors)
  225. irreversible
    bind to enzyme with covalent bonds(cyanide,DDT,many antibiotics)
  226. competitive
    bind to site of other enzymes blocking substrate from entering
  227. non-competitive
    bind to another portion of enzyme, causing it to change shape and reduce effectiveness of active site
  228. metabolic pathways
    a sequence of biochemical reactions,beginning with a specific reactant and ending with a certain product,each catalyzed by a specific enzyme
  229. names of enzymes
    Hundreds of different enzymes are present in every cell they derive often from names of their substrates
  230. rate limiting enzyme
    • determines metabolic pathway that cataizes one of its steps
    • often 1st step
    • rate of pathway no longer increases once rate limiting enzyme becomes saturated
    • often inhibited by end product
  231. energy(for metabolic reactions)
    • capacity to do work
    • kinetic energy-energy of(molecular)motion
    • potential energy-stored energy(of chem bonds)
  232. cellular work(for metabolic reactions)
    • chemical work-powering anabolic reactions
    • transport work=activate of substrates across cell membrane
    • mechanical work-beating of cilia&flagella,contraction of muscle cells
    • ATP(adenosine triphosphate)-adenine-ribose-3 phoshate groups bonds between phosphate groups can be broken by hydrolysis,releasing energy in the form that a cell can use,main energy carrier of cell-used to make rna.ATP powers cellular work by phosphorylation(attachment of phosphorylation group) to reactants,transport,and motor proteins,ATP is regenerated by phosphorylation of ADP using energy from catabolic pathways(cellular respiration)