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- Pontiac or Obwandiyag (c. 1720 – April 20, 1769) was a chief of the Ottawa tribe who became famous for his role in Pontiac's Rebellion (1763–1766), an American Indian struggle against the British military occupation of the Great Lakes region following the British victory in the French and Indian War.
- Historians disagree about Pontiac's importance in the war that bears
- his name. Nineteenth-century accounts portrayed him as the mastermind
- and leader of the revolt, while some subsequent interpretations have
- depicted him as a local leader with limited overall influence.
Royal Proclamation of 1763
- The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War, in which it forbade settlers from settling past a line drawn along the Appalachian Mountains. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier. The Royal Proclamation continues to be of legal importance to First Nations
- in Canada and is significant for the variation of indigenous status in
- the United States. It also ensured that British culture and laws were
- applied in Quebec, which was done to attract British settlers to Quebec.
- he Sugar Act, also known as the American Revenue Act or the American Duties Act, was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, 1764.
- The preamble to the act stated: "it is expedient that new provisions
- and regulations should be established for improving the revenue of this
- Kingdom ... and ... it is just and necessary that a revenue should be
- raised ... for defraying the expenses of defending, protecting, and
- securing the same." The earlier Molasses Act of 1733, which had imposed a tax of six pence per gallon of molasses,
- had never been effectively collected due to colonial evasion. By
- reducing the rate by half and increasing measures to enforce the tax,
- the British hoped that the tax would actually be collected.
- These incidents increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of
- the British Parliament and helped the growing movement that became the American Revolution.
- In 1754 Grenville became Treasurer of the Navy, a position he held twice until 1761. In October 1761 he chose to stay in government and accepted the new role of Leader of the Commons causing a rift with his brother-in-law and political ally William Pitt who had resigned. Grenville was subsequently made Northern Secretary and First Lord of the Admiralty by the new Prime Minister Lord Bute. On 8 April 1763, Lord Bute resigned, and Grenville assumed his position as Prime Minister.
- His government tried to bring public spending under control and pursued
- an assertive foreign policy. His best known policy is the Stamp Act, a common tax in Great Britain onto the colonies in America, which provoked widespread opposition in Britain's American colonies and was later repealed. Grenville had increasingly strained relations with his colleagues and the King and in 1765 he was dismissed by George III and replaced by Lord Rockingham.
- For the last five years of his life Grenville led a group of his
- supporters in opposition and staged a public reconciliation with Pitt.
- The Stamp Act 1765 (short title Duties in American Colonies Act 1765; 5 George III, c. 12) imposed a direct tax by the British Parliament specifically on the colonies of British America, and it required that many printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper produced in London, carrying an embossed revenue stamp.
- These printed materials were legal documents, magazines, newspapers and
- many other types of paper used throughout the colonies. Like previous
- taxes, the stamp tax had to be paid in valid British currency, not in
- colonial paper money. The purpose of the tax was to help pay for troops stationed in North America after the British victory in the Seven Years' War.
- The British government felt that the colonies were the primary
- beneficiaries of this military presence, and should pay at least a
- portion of the expense.
Benjamin Franklin (January 17, 1706 [O.S. January 6, 1705][Note 1][Note 2] – April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat. As a scientist, he was a major figure in the American Enlightenment and the history of physics for his discoveries and theories regarding electricity. He invented the lightning rod, bifocals, the Franklin stove, a carriage odometer, and the glass 'armonica'. He facilitated many civic organizations, including a fire department and a university.
- The American Colonies Act 1766 (6 Geo 3 c 12), commonly known as the Declaratory Act, was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain, which accompanied the repeal of the Stamp Act 1765.
- Parliament repealed the Stamp Act because boycotts were hurting British
- trade and used the declaration to justify the repeal and save face. The
- declaration stated that Parliament's authority was the same in America
- as in Britain and asserted Parliament's authority to pass laws that were
- binding on the American colonies.
- The Townshend Acts were a series of acts passed beginning in 1767 by the Parliament of Great Britain relating to the British colonies in North America. The acts are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer,
- who proposed the program. Historians vary slightly in which acts they
- include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five laws are often
- mentioned: the Revenue Act of 1767, the Indemnity Act, the Commissioners
- of Customs Act, the Vice Admiralty Court Act, and the New York
- Restraining Act.
- The purpose of the Townshend Acts was to raise revenue in the colonies
- to pay the salaries of governors and judges so that they would be
- independent of colonial rule, to create a more effective means of
- enforcing compliance with trade regulations, to punish the province of New York for failing to comply with the 1765 Quartering Act, and to establish the precedent that the British Parliament had the right to tax the colonies. The Townshend Acts were met with resistance in the colonies, prompting the occupation of Boston by British troops in 1768, which eventually resulted in the Boston Massacre of 1770.
Samuel Adams (September 27 [O.S. September 16] 1722 – October 2, 1803) was an American statesman, political philosopher, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. As a politician in colonial Massachusetts, Adams was a leader of the movement that became the American Revolution, and was one of the architects of the principles of American republicanism that shaped the political culture of the United States. He was a second cousin to President John Adams.
- The Boston Massacre, known as the Incident on King Street by the British, was an incident on March 5, 1770, in which British Army soldiers killed five civilian men and injured six others. British troops had been stationed in Boston, capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay,
- since 1768 in order to protect and support crown-appointed colonial
- officials attempting to enforce unpopular Parliamentary legislation.
- Amid ongoing tense relations between the population and the soldiers, a
- mob formed around a British sentry, who was subjected to verbal abuse
- and harassment. He was eventually supported by eight additional
- soldiers, who were subjected to verbal threats and thrown objects. They
- fired into the crowd, without orders, instantly killing three people and
- wounding others. Two more people died later of wounds sustained in the
Crispus Attucks (c. 1723 – March 5, 1770) was an American slave, merchant seaman and dockworker of Wampanoag and African descent. Many people think he was the first person shot dead by British redcoats during the Boston Massacre, in Boston, Massachusetts.
George III of the United Kingdom
- His life and reign, which were longer than those of any previous British
- monarch, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his
- kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, and places farther afield in
- Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain
- defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of its American colonies were soon lost in the American Revolutionary War. Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815.
Boston Tea Party
- The Boston Tea Party (initially referred to by John Adams as simply "the Destruction of the Tea in Boston") was a political protest by the Sons of Liberty in Boston, a city in the British colony of Massachusetts, against the tax policy of the British government and the East India Company
- that controlled all the tea imported into the colonies. On December 16,
- 1773, after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of
- taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and
- destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor. The incident remains an iconic event of American history, and other political protests often refer to it.
The Intolerable (Coercive) Acts was the Patriot name for a series of punitive laws passed by the British Parliament in 1774 relating to Massachusetts after the Boston Tea party. The acts stripped Massachusetts of self-government and historic rights, triggering outrage and resistance in the Thirteen Colonies. They were key developments in the outbreak of the American Revolution in 1775.
- The Quebec Act of 1774 was an act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo. III c. 83) setting procedures of governance in the Province of Quebec. The principal components of the act were:
- The province's territory was expanded to take over part of the Indian Reserve, including much of what is now southern Ontario, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Minnesota.The oath of allegiance was replaced with one that no longer made reference to the Protestant faith.It guaranteed free practice of the Catholic faith.It restored the use of the French civil law for private matters, except that in accordance with the English common law, it granted unlimited testamentary freedom. It maintained English common law for public administration, including criminal prosecution.It restored the Catholic church's right to impose tithes.
First Continental Congress
- Benjamin Franklin
- had put forth the idea of such a meeting the year before but was unable
- to convince the colonies of its necessity until the British placed a
- blockade at the Port of Boston in response to the Boston Tea Party
- in 1773. All of the colonies sent their delegates except Georgia, which
- had its own troubles and needed the protection of British soldiers.
- Most of the delegates were not yet ready to break away from Great
- Britain, but they wanted the British King and Parliament to act in what they considered a more fair manner. Convened in response to the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament in 1774, the delegates organized an economic boycott of Great Britain in protest and petitioned the King for a redress of grievances.
- The colonies were united in their effort to demonstrate their authority
- to Great Britain by virtue of their common causes and through their
- unity, but their ultimate objectives were not consistent. Pennsylvania
- and New York had sent delegates with firm instructions to pursue a
- resolution with Great Britain. While the other colonies all held the
- idea of colonial rights as paramount, they were split between those who
- sought legislative equality with Britain and those who instead favored
- independence and a break from the Crown and its excesses. On October 26,
- 1774 the First Continental Congress adjourned but agreed to reconvene
- in May 1775 if Parliament still did not address their grievances.
Paul Revere (December 21, 1734 – May 10, 1818)[N 1] was an American silversmith, early industrialist, and a patriot in the American Revolution. He is most famous for alerting the Colonial militia to the approach of British forces before the battles of Lexington and Concord, as dramatized in Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's poem, "Paul Revere's Ride."
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The Battles of Lexington and Concord were the first military engagements of the American Revolutionary War. They were fought on April 19, 1775, in Middlesex County, Province of Massachusetts Bay, within the towns of Lexington, Concord, Lincoln, Menotomy (present-day Arlington), and Cambridge, near Boston. The battles marked the outbreak of open armed conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and its thirteen colonies in the mainland of British North America.
Second Continental Congress
- The Second Continental Congress
- convened on May 10, 1775 at Philadelphia’s State House, unanimously
- passing the Declaration of Independence on July 2, 1776. During the American Revolution, the Second Continental Congress continued, meeting at various locations, until it became Congress of the Confederation when the Articles of Confederation were ratified on March 1, 1781.
The Continental Army was formed after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America. Established by a resolution of the Continental Congress on June 14, 1775, it was created to coordinate the military efforts of the Thirteen Colonies in their revolt against the rule of Great Britain. The Continental Army was supplemented by local militias and other troops that remained under control of the individual states. General George Washington was the commander-in-chief of the army throughout the war.
Battle of Bunker Hill
- The Battle of Bunker Hill took place on June 17, 1775, mostly on and around Breed's Hill, during the Siege of Boston early in the American Revolutionary War.
- The battle is named after the adjacent Bunker Hill, which was
- peripherally involved in the battle and was the original objective of
- both colonial and British troops, and is occasionally referred to as the
- "Battle of Breed's Hill."
Olive Branch Petition
- The Olive Branch Petition was adopted by the Continental Congress in July 1775 in a fortified attempt to avoid a full-blown war between the Thirteen Colonies that the Congress represented, and Great Britain.
- The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated
- the king to prevent further conflict. However, the Petition succeeded
- the July 6 Declaration of Taking up Arms which made its efficacy in London dubious. In August 1775 the colonies were formally declared to rebellion by the Proclamation of Rebellion,
- and the petition was rejected in fact, although not having been
- received by the king before declaring the Congress-supporting colonists
Ethan Allen (January 21, 1738 [O.S. January 10, 1737] – February 12, 1789) was a farmer; businessman; land speculator; philosopher; writer; and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U.S. state of Vermont, and for the capture of Fort Ticonderoga early in the American Revolutionary War.
Green Mountain Boys
- The Green Mountain Boys were a militia organization first established in the late 1760s in the territory between the British provinces of New York and New Hampshire, known as the New Hampshire Grants (which later became the state of Vermont). Headed by Ethan Allen
- and members of his extended family, they were instrumental in resisting
- New York's attempts to control the territory, over which it had won de jure control in a territorial dispute with New Hampshire.
Benedict Arnold (January 14, 1741 [O.S. January 3, 1740] – June 14, 1801) was a general during the American Revolutionary War who originally fought for the American Continental Army but defected to the British Army. While a general on the American side, he obtained command of the fort at West Point, New York, and planned to surrender it to the British forces. After the plan was exposed in September 1780, he was commissioned into the British Army as a brigadier general.
- Thomas Paine (January 29, 1737  (NS February 9, 1737) – June 8, 1809) was an English-American
- political activist, author, political theorist and revolutionary. As
- the author of two highly influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, he inspired the Patriots in 1776 to declare independence from Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment era rhetoric of transnational human rights. He has been called "a corsetmaker by trade, a journalist by profession, and a propagandist by inclination".
Common Sense (pamphlet)
- Common Sense is a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1775–76 that inspired people in the Thirteen Colonies to declare and fight for independence from Great Britain
- in the summer of 1776. In clear, simple language it explained the
- advantages of and the need for immediate independence. It was published
- anonymously on January 10, 1776, at the beginning of the American Revolution
- to become an immediate sensation. It was sold and distributed widely
- and read aloud at taverns and meeting places. Washington had it read to
- all his troops, which at the time had surrounded the British army in
- Boston. In proportion to the population of the colonies at that time
- (2.5 million), it had the largest sale and circulation of any book
- published in American history.
Louis XVI of France
Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) was King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, after which he was subsequently King of the French from 1791 to 1792, before his deposition and execution during the French Revolution. His father, Louis, Dauphin of France, was the son and heir apparent of Louis XV of France. Due to the Dauphin's death in 1765, Louis succeeded his grandfather in 1774.
United States Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the 13 American colonies, then at war with Great Britain, regarded themselves as independent states, and no longer a part of the British Empire. Instead they formed a union that would become a new nation—the United States of America. John Adams was a leader in pushing for independence, which was unanimously approved on July 2. A committee had already drafted the formal declaration, to be ready when congress voted on independence.
- Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 (April 2, 1743 O.S.) – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776) and the third President of the United States (1801–1809). He was a spokesman for democracy and the rights of man with worldwide influence. At the beginning of the American Revolution, he served in the Continental Congress,
- representing Virginia and then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia
- (1779–1781). Just after the war ended, from mid-1784 Jefferson served
- as a diplomat, stationed in Paris. In May 1785, he became the United States Minister to France.
John Hancock (January 23, 1737 [O.S. January 12, 1736] – October 8, 1793) was a merchant, statesman, and prominent Patriot of the American Revolution. He served as president of the Second Continental Congress and was the first and third Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. He is remembered for his large and stylish signature on the United States Declaration of Independence, so much so that the term "John Hancock" became, in the United States, a synonym for signature.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 [O.S. February 11, 1731][Note 1][Note 2] – December 14, 1799) was the first President of the United States (1789–1797), the commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. He presided over the convention that drafted the Constitution, which replaced the Articles of Confederation and established the position of President.
William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe
William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe, KB, PC (10 August 1729 – 12 July 1814) was a British army officer who rose to become Commander-in-Chief of British forces during the American War of Independence. Howe was one of three brothers who enjoyed distinguished military careers.
Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis
- Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis KG (31 December 1738 – 5 October 1805), styled Viscount Brome between 1753 and 1762 and known as The Earl Cornwallis between 1762 and 1792, was a British Army officer and colonial administrator. In the United States and the United Kingdom he is best remembered as one of the leading British generals in the American War of Independence. His surrender in 1781 to a combined American and French force at the Siege of Yorktown
- ended significant hostilities in North America. He also served as a
- civil and military governor in Ireland and India; in both places he
- brought about significant changes, including the Act of Union in Ireland, and the Cornwallis Code and the Permanent Settlement in India.
Battles of Saratoga
- The Battles of Saratoga (September 19 and October 7, 1777) conclusively decided the fate of British General John Burgoyne's army in the American War of Independence
- and are generally regarded as a turning point in the war. The battles
- were fought eighteen days apart on the same ground, 9 miles (14 km)
- south of Saratoga, New York.
General Edward Braddock (January 1695 – 13 July 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for the 13 colonies during the actions at the start of the French and Indian War (1754–1765) which is also known in Europe as the Seven Years War (1756–1763). He is generally best remembered for his command of a disastrous expedition against the French-occupied Ohio Country then in western Virginia or Pennsylvania (depending on which Royal grants) in 1755, in which he lost his life.
General Henry Clinton
General Sir Henry Clinton, KB (16 April 1730 – 23 December 1795) was a British army officer and politician, best known for his service as a general during the American War of Independence. First arriving in Boston in May 1775, from 1778 to 1782 he was the British Commander-in-Chief in North America. In addition to his military service, due to the influence of the 2nd Duke of Newcastle, he was a Member of Parliament for many years. Late in life he was named Governor of Gibraltar, but died before assuming the post.
Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette
Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette (French pronunciation: [maʁki də la fajɛt]; 6 September 1757 – 20 May 1834), often known simply as Lafayette, was a French aristocrat and military officer born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France. Lafayette was a general in the American Revolutionary War and a leader of the Garde nationale during the French Revolution.
Siege of Yorktown
- The Siege of Yorktown, Battle of Yorktown, or Surrender at Yorktown, the latter taking place on October 19, 1781, was a decisive victory by a combined force of American Continental Army led by General George Washington and French Army troops led by the Comte de Rochambeau over a British Army commanded by British lord and Lieutenant General Lord Cornwallis. The culmination of the Yorktown campaign, the siege proved to be the last major land battle of the American Revolutionary War
- in North America, as the surrender by Cornwallis and the capture of
- both him and his army, prompted the British government to negotiate an
- end to the conflict.
François Joseph Paul de Grasse
- Lieutenant Général des Armées Navales François-Joseph Paul, marquis de Grasse Tilly, comte de Grasse (13 September 1722 – 11 January 1788) was a French admiral. He is best known for his command of the French fleet at the Battle of the Chesapeake, which led directly to the British surrender at Yorktown.
- De Grasse was decisively defeated the following year by Admiral Rodney at the Battle of the Saintes, where he was captured. He was widely criticised for this. On his return to France, he demanded a court martial; he was acquitted of fault in his defeat.
Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau
- Marshal Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, Comte de Rochambeau (French pronunciation: [ʁɔʃɑ̃bo]; 1 July 1725 – 10 May 1807) was a French nobleman
- and general who played a major role in helping America win independence
- during the American Revolution. During this time, he served as commander-in-chief
- of the French Expeditionary Force which embarked from France in order
- to help the American Continental Army fight against British forces.
Frederick North, Lord North
Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), more often known by his courtesy title, Lord North, which he used from 1752 until 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence. He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer.
- Molly Pitcher (1754-1832) was a nickname given to a woman said to have fought in the American Battle of Monmouth, who is generally believed to have been Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley. Since various Molly Pitcher tales grew in the telling, many historians regard Molly Pitcher as folklore
- rather than history, or suggest that Molly Pitcher may be a composite
- image inspired by the actions of a number of real women. The name itself
- may have originated as a nickname given to women who carried water to
- men on the battlefield during the war. Army base Fort Bragg
- holds an annual event called "Molly Pitcher Day" showcasing weapon
- systems for family members, Airborne Operations, and Field Artillery.
Deborah Sampson Gannett (December 17, 1760 – April 29, 1827), better known as Deborah Sampson, was an American woman who disguised as a man in order to serve in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. She is one of a small number of women with a documented record of military combat experience in that war. She served 17 months in the army, as "Robert Shurtlieff", of Uxbridge, Massachusetts, was wounded in 1782 and honorably discharged at West Point, New York in 1783.
- Abigail Adams (née Smith; November 22 [O.S. November 11] 1744 – October 28, 1818) was the wife of John Adams, the first Vice President, and second President, of the United States, and the mother of John Quincy Adams, the sixth President of the United States. She was the first Second Lady of the United States and second First Lady of the United States.
- Adams's life is one of the most documented of the first ladies: she
- is remembered for the many letters she wrote to her husband while he
- stayed in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, during the Continental Congresses.
- John frequently sought the advice of Abigail on many matters, and their
- letters are filled with intellectual discussions on government and
- politics. The letters serve as eyewitness accounts of the American Revolutionary War home front.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain on one side and the United States of America and its allies on the other. The other combatant nations, France, Spain and the Dutch Republic had separate agreements; for details of these, and the negotiations which produced all four treaties, see Peace of Paris (1783). Its territorial provisions were "exceedingly generous" to the United States in terms of enlarged boundaries.
Articles of Confederation
- The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 founding states that established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitution. Its drafting by the Continental Congress
- began in mid-1776, and an approved version was sent to the states for
- ratification in late 1777. The formal ratification by all 13 states was
- completed in early 1781. Even when not yet ratified, the Articles
- provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental
- Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War,
- conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and
- Native American relations. Nevertheless, the weakness of the government
- created by the Articles became a matter of concern for key nationalists. On March 4, 1789, the Articles were replaced with the U.S. Constitution.
- The new Constitution provided for a much stronger national government
- with a chief executive (the president), courts, and taxing powers.
he Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance or "The Ordinance of 1787") was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States, passed July 13, 1787. The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory, the first organized territory of the United States, from lands south of the Great Lakes, north and west of the Ohio River, and east of the Mississippi River.
Depression following the revolutionary war
- The rebellion started on August 29, 1786. It was precipitated by several
- factors: financial difficulties brought about by a post-war economic
- depression, a credit squeeze caused by a lack of hard currency,
- and fiscally harsh government policies instituted in 1785 to solve the
- state's debt problems. Protesters, including many war veterans, shut
- down county courts in the later months of 1786 to stop the judicial
- hearings for tax and debt collection. The protesters became radicalized
- against the state government following the arrests of some of their
- leaders, and began to organize an armed force. A militia raised as a private army defeated a Shaysite (rebel) attempt to seize the federal Springfield Armory
- in late January 1787, killing four and wounding 20. The main Shaysite
- force was scattered on February 4, 1787, after a surprise attack on
- their camp in Petersham, Massachusetts. Scattered resistance continued until June 1787, with the single most significant action being an incident in Sheffield in late February, where 30 rebels were wounded (one mortally) in a skirmish with government troops.
Annapolis Convention (1786)
- The Annapolis Convention was a meeting in 1786 at Annapolis, Maryland, of 12 delegates from five states (New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia) that unanimously called for a constitutional convention. The formal title of the meeting was a Meeting of Commissioners to Remedy Defects of the Federal Government. Long dissatisfied with the weak Articles of Confederation, Alexander Hamilton
- of New York played a major leadership role. He drafted its resolution
- for a constitutional convention, and in doing so brought his longtime
- desire to have a more powerful, more financially independent federal
- government one step closer to reality.
- the Philadelphia Convention,Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to address problems in governing the United States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from Great Britain.
- Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of
- Confederation, the intention from the outset of many of its proponents,
- chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one. The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the Convention. The result of the Convention was the creation of the United States Constitution, placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States.
- Sovereignty is the quality of having independent authority over a geographic area, such as a territory.
- It can be found in a power to rule and make laws that rests on a
- political fact for which no pure legal definition can be provided. In
- theoretical terms, the idea of "sovereignty", historically, from Socrates to Thomas Hobbes, has always necessitated a moral imperative on the entity exercising it.
One who wants a central government
James Madison, Jr. (March 16, 1751 (O.S. March 5) – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman, political theorist and the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817). He is hailed as the “Father of the Constitution” for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rights. He served as a politician much of his adult life.
- Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was a Founding Father of the United States,
- chief of staff to General Washington, one of the most influential
- interpreters and promoters of the Constitution, the founder of the
- nation's financial system, and the founder of the first American
- political party.
- The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman's Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution. It retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by Roger Sherman,
- along with proportional representation in the lower house, but required
- the upper house to be weighted equally between the states. Each state
- would have two representatives in the upper house.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which three-fifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives. It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman.
Statesmen and public figures supporting the administrations of presidents George Washington (1789–1797) and John Adams (1797–1801). Especially in the later years they were also called the Federalist Party, founded by Alexander Hamilton. During the 1790s and early 1800s, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison organized the Democratic-Republican Party and opposed the Federalists over issues of how broadly (or narrowly) to apply the provisions of the new Constitution.
- Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of
- a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the
- ratification of the Constitution of 1787. The previous constitution, called the Articles of Confederation, gave state governments more authority. Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia, Anti-Federalists worried, among other things, that the position of president, then a novelty, might evolve into a monarchy. A book titled "The Anti-Federalist Papers" is a detailed explanation of American Anti-Federalist thought.
The Federalist Papers are a series of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay promoting the ratification of the United States Constitution. Seventy-seven were published serially in The Independent Journal and The New York Packet between October of 1787 and August 1788. A compilation of these and eight others, called The Federalist; or, The New Constitution, was published in two volumes in 1788 by J. and A. McLean. The series' correct title is The Federalist; the title The Federalist Papers did not emerge until the twentieth century.
Bill of rights
A bill of rights is a list of the most important rights to the citizens of a country. The purpose of these bills is to protect those rights against infringement. The term "bill of rights" originates from England, where it refers to the Bill of Rights enacted by Parliament in 1689, following the Glorious Revolution, asserting the supremacy of Parliament over the monarch, and listing a number of fundamental rights and liberties.
- Daniel Boone (November 2, 1734 [O.S. October 22] – September 26, 1820) was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now Kentucky,
- which was then part of Virginia but on the other side of the mountains
- from the settled areas. Despite some resistance from American Indian
- tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775 Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains from North Carolina and Tennessee into Kentucky. There he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky,
- one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before
- the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 European people migrated
- to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.
- Eli Whitney (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) was an American inventor best known for inventing the cotton gin. This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South. Whitney's invention made upland short cotton into a profitable crop, which strengthened the economic foundation of slavery in the United States (regardless
- of whether Whitney intended that or not). Despite the social and
- economic impact of his invention, Whitney lost many profits in legal
- battles over patent infringement for the cotton gin. Thereafter, he
- turned his attention into securing contracts with the government in the
- manufacture of muskets for the newly formed United States Army. He
- continued making arms and inventing until his death in 1825.
Judiciary Act of 1789
- The United States Judiciary Act of 1789 (ch. 20, 1 Stat. 73) was a landmark statute adopted on September 24, 1789, in the first session of the First United States Congress. It established the U.S. federal judiciary. Article III, Section 1 of the Constitution
- prescribed that the "judicial power of the United States, shall be
- vested in one supreme Court," and such inferior courts as Congress saw
- fit to establish. It made no provision, though, for the composition or
- procedures of any of the courts, leaving this to Congress to decide.
- Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was a Founding Father of the United States,
- chief of staff to General Washington, one of the most influential
- interpreters and promoters of the Constitution, the founder of the
- nation's financial system, and the founder of the first American
- political party.
Edmund Jennings Randolph (August 10, 1753 – September 12, 1813) was an American attorney, the seventh Governor of Virginia, the second Secretary of State, and the first United States Attorney General.
Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, and also served as the first United States Secretary of War.
Hamiltonian economic program
The Hamiltonian economic program was the set of measures that were proposed by American Founding Father and 1st Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in three notable reports and implemented by Congress during George Washington's first administration.
First Bank of the United States
- he President, Directors and Company, of the Bank of the United States, commonly known as the First Bank of the United States, was a central bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress
- on February 25, 1791. Establishment of the Bank was included in a
- three-part expansion of federal fiscal and monetary power (along with a
- federal mint and excise taxes) championed by Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury.
- Hamilton believed a central bank was necessary to stabilize and improve
- the nation's credit, and to improve handling of the financial business
- of the United States government under the newly enacted Constitution.
- A Jacobin (French pronunciation: [ʒakɔbɛ̃]) is someone who supports a centralized Republic, with power made at the federal level in contemporary usage. At its inception during the French Revolution,
- the term was popularly applied to all supporters of revolutionary
- opinions. Specifically, it was used to describe members of the Jacobin Club, a revolutionary, far-left political movement that had been the most famous political club of the French Revolution. The club was so called from the Dominican convent where they originally met, in the Rue Saint-Jacques (Latin: Jacobus) in Paris.
Reign of Terror
- The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794), also known simply as The Terror (French: la Terreur), was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins,
- and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death
- toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris), and another 25,000 in summary executions across France.
Edmond-Charles Genêt (January 8, 1763 – July 14, 1834), also known as Citizen Genêt, was a French ambassador to the United States during the French Revolution.
Horatio Lloyd Gates (July 26, 1727 – April 10, 1806) was a retired British soldier who served as an American general during the Revolutionary War. He took credit for the American victory in the Battles of Saratoga (1777) — a matter of contemporary and historical controversy — and was blamed for the defeat at the Battle of Camden (1780). Gates has been described as "one of the Revolution's most controversial military figures" because of his role in the Conway Cabal (which attempted to discredit and replace George Washington); the battle at Saratoga; and his actions during and after his defeat at Camden.
General John Burgoyne (24 February 1722 – 4 August 1792) was a British army officer, politician and dramatist. He first saw action during the Seven Years' War when he participated in several battles, mostly notably during the Portugal Campaign of 1762.
Robert Howe (Continental Army officer)
- Robert Howe (1732 – December 14, 1786) was a Continental Army general from North Carolina during the American Revolutionary War. The descendant of a prominent family
- in North Carolina, Howe was one of only five generals, and the only
- major general in the Continental Army, from that state. He also played a
- role in the colonial and state governments of North Carolina, serving
- in the legislative bodies of both.
Benjamin Lincoln (January 24, 1733 (O.S. January 13, 1732) – May 9, 1810) was an American army officer. He served as a major general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He is notable for being involved in three major surrenders during the war: his participation in the Battles of Saratoga (sustaining a wound shortly afterward) contributed to John Burgoyne's surrender of a British army, he oversaw the largest American surrender of the war at the 1780 Siege of Charleston, and, as George Washington's second in command, he formally accepted the British surrender at Yorktown.
- William Prescott (February 20, 1726 – October 13, 1795) was an American colonel in the Revolutionary War who commanded the rebel forces in the Battle of Bunker Hill.
- Prescott is known for his order to his soldiers, "Do not fire until you
- see the whites of their eyes", such that the rebel troops may shoot at
- the enemy at shorter ranges, and therefore more accurately and lethally,
- and so conserve their limited stocks of ammunition. It is debated
- whether Prescott or someone earlier coined this memorable saying.
The Treaty of Amity, Commerce, and Navigation, Between His Britannic Majesty and The United States of America, commonly known as the Jay Treaty, and also as Jay's Treaty, the British Treaty, and the Treaty of London of 1794, was a treaty between the United States of America and the Kingdom of Great Britain that is credited with averting war, resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783, which ended the American Revolution, and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars, which began in 1792.
John Jay (December 12, 1745 – May 17, 1829) was an American statesman, Patriot, diplomat, a Founding Father of the United States, signer of the Treaty of Paris, and the first Chief Justice of the United States (1789–95).
Pinckney's Treaty, also known as the Treaty of San Lorenzo or the Treaty of Madrid, was signed in San Lorenzo de El Escorial on October 27, 1795 and established intentions of friendship between the United States and Spain. It also defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River. The treaty's full title is Treaty of Friendship, Limits, and Navigation Between Spain and the United States. Thomas Pinckney negotiated the treaty for the United States and Don Manuel de Godoy represented Spain. Among other things, it ended the first phase of the West Florida Controversy, a dispute between the two nations over the boundaries of the Spanish colony of West Florida.
Treaty of Greenville
The Treaty of Greenville was signed at Fort Greenville — now Greenville, Ohio — on August 3, 1795 following the Native American loss at the Battle of Fallen Timbers the previous year. The parties to the treaty were a coalition of American Indian tribes, known as the Western Confederacy, and the local frontiermen of the United States. It ended the Northwest Indian War in the Ohio Country.
Anthony Wayne (January 1, 1745 – December 15, 1796) was a United States Army officer and statesman. Wayne adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality quickly earned him promotion to brigadier general and the sobriquet Mad Anthony.
Battle of Fallen Timbers
The Battle of Fallen Timbers (August 20, 1794) was the final battle of the Northwest Indian War, a struggle between American Indian tribes affiliated with the Western Confederacy and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory (an area bounded on the south by the Ohio River, on the west by the Mississippi River, and on the northeast by the Great Lakes). The battle, which was a decisive victory for the United States, ended major hostilities in the region until Tecumseh's War and the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811.
- The Whiskey Rebellion, or Whiskey Insurrection, was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791, during the presidency of George Washington. Farmers who used their leftover grain and corn in the form of whiskey as a medium of exchange were forced to pay a new tax. The tax was a part of treasury secretary Alexander Hamilton's program to increase central government power, in particular to fund his policy of assuming the war debt
- of those states which had failed to pay. The farmers who resisted, many
- war veterans, contended that they were fighting for the principles of
- the American Revolution, in particular against taxation without local representation, while the Federal government maintained the taxes were the legal expression of the taxation powers of Congress.
- An excise or excise tax (sometimes called a duty of excise special tax) is an inland tax on the sale, or production for sale, of specific goods
- or a tax on a good produced for sale, or sold, within a country or
- licenses for specific activities. Excises are distinguished from customs duties, which are taxes on importation. Excises are inland taxes, whereas customs duties are border taxes.