Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell.txt

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Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell.txt
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Chapter 6
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  1. 
    • author "Alice Jones"
    • tags "Chapter 6"
    • description "Chapter 6"
    • fileName "Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell"
    • author "Alice Jones"
    • fileName "Chapter 6 A Tour of a Cell"
    • tags "Chapter 6"
    • description "Chapter 6"
    • Cell
    • All organisms are made of Cell and are living
  2. Microscopy
    Scientist Uses microscope to visualize Cells to smallto see with the naked eye
  3. light microscopes
    • • Pass Visible light through a Speciman
    • • Magnify cellular structures with lenses
  4. Viruses
    Are not living organism
  5. Uses different methods for enhancing Visalization of Cellular structure
    • Tehinques
    • A) Bright field (unstained Specimen),
    • B) Bright field (stained Specimen)
    • c) Phase-contrast
    • D) Differential - Interface - Contrast (Nomarski)
    • E) Florenescence
    • F) Confocal
  6. Electron Microscopes
    Focus a beam of electron through a Specimen (TEM) or onto it Suface (SEM)
  7. The scanning electron microscope (SEM)
    Provides for detailed study of the Surface of a specimen.
  8. Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
    Provides for detailed Study of the internal Ultra structure of Cells
  9. All Cells have several basic features in Common
    • • They are bounded by a plasma membrane.
    • • They Contain a Semifluid Called Cytosol
    • • They contain chromosomes made up of DNA .
    • • They have all ribosomes
  10. Prokaryotic Cell(bacteria)
    • 1. do not have a nucleus
    • 2. Have their DNA located in a region called the nucleoid.
  11. Eukaryotic Cells
    • 1. Contain a true nucleus, bounded by a membranous nuclear envelope
    • 2. Are generally much larger than prokaryotic cells
  12. A smaller cell
    Has a higher surface to volume ratio, which facilities the exchange of materials into and out the cell
  13. Plasma Membrane
    • 1. functions as a selective barrier
    • 2. allows sufficient passage of nutrients and waste
  14. Eukaryotic Cells
    Have extensive and elaborately arranged internal membranes, which form organelles.
  15. Animal cells
    • 1. has centrioles (two logs in the picture drawing)
    • (we are not sure what they do but plants do not have them)
    • 2. Lysosomes for digestive
  16. Plant cells
    • 1. Have many chloroplasts (not every plant has one.)
    • 2. A cell wall (outside the plasma membrane, prevents a cell from combusting when water enters it)
    • 3. Large central vacuole
  17. Plant and animal cells
    have most of the same organelles
  18. Nucleus (part of animal cell)
    • There are three parts to a nucleus
    • 1. Nuclear envelope
    • 2. nucleolus (dark circle in the center used to make ribosomes)
    • 3. Chromatin(The DNA and proteins of chromosomes)
  19. Plasma Membrane (part of animal cell)
    Is the outer cover. Is use as a barrier between the cell and its environment.
  20. Ribosomes  (part of animal cell)
    • 1. complexes that makes proteins; free in cytosol or  bound to rough ER or nuclear envelope
    • 2. Protein synthesis
  21. Golgi apparatus  (part of animal cell)
    • 1. A stack of membrane
    • 2. Shipping and export, they are like the ups of the cell
  22. Lysosome  (part of animal cell)
    digestive organelle where macromolecules are hydrolyzed
  23. Peroxisome (part of animal cell)
    organelle with various specialized metabolic functions produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product the converts it to water
  24. Microvilli (part of animal cell)
    projections that increases the cell surface area
  25. Cytoskeleton (part of animal cell)
    reinforces cell's shape; function in cell movement; components are made of protein which incudes. Microfilaments, Intermediate filaments and Microtubules.
  26. Centrosome
    region where the cells microtubules are initiated; contains a pair of centrioles
  27. flagellum
    motility structure present in some animal cells, composed of a cluster of microtubules within an extension of the plasma membrane.
  28. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
    • 1. Rough ER
    • 2. Smooth ER
    • network of membranous sacs and tubes; active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes; has rough(ribosome-studded) and smooth regions
  29. Mitochondrion
    organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated.
  30. Plant Cell
    • 1. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
    • 2. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • 3. Ribosomes
    • 4. Cytoskeleton
    • 5. Chloroplast
    • 6. Plasmodesmata
    • 7. Wall of adjacent cell
    • 8. cell wall
    • 9. Plasma membrane
    • 10. peroxisome
    • 11. Mitochondrion
    • 12. Golgi apparatus
    • 13. Nucleus
  31. Nucleus
    contains most of the genes in the eukaryotic cell
  32. Endomembrane system
    includes many different structure
  33. The ER membrane
    is continuous with the nuclear envelope
  34. Smooth ER
    • 1. Synthesizes lipids
    • 2. metabolizes carbohydrates
    • 3. stores calcium
    • 5. detoxifies poison
  35. In which of these cells would you expect to find the most smooth endoplasmic reticulum
    • 1. Muscle cell in the thigh muscle of a long distance runner
    • 2. Pancreatic cell that manufactures digestive enzymes
    • 3. Macrophage (White blood cells)that engulfs bacteria
    • 4. Epithelial cells lining the digestive tract
    • 5. Ovarian cell the produces estrogen(a steroid hormone)

    The ovarian cell
  36. The rough ER
    • 1. has bound ribosomes
    • 2. Produces proteins and membranes, which are distributed by transport vesicles.
  37. In which of these cells would you expect to find the most bound ribosomes
    • 1. Muscle cell in the thigh muscle of a long distance runner
    • 2. Pancreatic cell that manufactures digestive enzymes
    • 3. Macrophage (White blood cells)that engulfs bacteria
    • 4. Epithelial cells lining the digestive tract5. Ovarian cell the produces estrogen(a steroid hormone)

    Pancreatic
  38. Golgi apparatus
    • 1. receives many of the transport vesicles produced in the rough ER
    • 2. Consists of flattened membranous sacs called cisternae
    • 3. Modification of products of rough ER
    • 4. Manufacture of certain macromolecules
  39. Lysosome
    • 1. is a membrane sac of hydrolytic enzymes
    • 2. Can digest all kinds of macromolecules
    • 3. Carry out intracellular digestion by Phagocytosis
  40. find the most lysosomes
    Macrophage (White blood cells)that engulfs bacteria
  41. which cell would probably provide the best opportunity to study lysosomes
    phagocytic white blood cell
  42. Vacuoles
    • 1. Maintenance department
    • 2. A plant or a fungal cell(many have one or several vacuoles)
    • 3. Food Vacuoles (formed by phagocytosis)
    • 4. Contact vacuoles pump excess water out of protest cells
  43. Central Vacuoles
    • 1. Are found in plant cells
    • 2. Hold reserves of important organic compounds and water.
  44. the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrane system
    rough ER ↠ Vesicles  ↠Golgi  ↠ Plasma Membrane
  45. Mitochondria
    • 1. Are the sites of cellular respiration
    • 2. Powerhouse of cell - Produce ATP
    • 3. Are in charge of energy of the cell
    • 4. Both in  animal and cell
    • 5. came from your mother not your father.
  46. Chloroplast
    found only in plants, are the sites of photosynthesis
  47. Mitochondria
    • 1. Are enclosed by two membranes
    • 2. Smooth outer membrane
    • 3. inner membrane folded into cristae
  48. where you expect to find the most mitochondria
    muscle cell in the thigh muscle of a long distance runner.
  49. Chloroplast
    are found in leaves an other green organs of plants and in algae -contain chlorophyll
  50. Peroxisomes
    Produce Hydrogen Peroxide and convert it to water
  51. Cytoskeleton
    • 1.is a network of fibers that organizes structures and activities in the cell
    • 2. Gives support to the cell
    • 3. is involved in cell motility, which utilizes motor proteins.
    • 4 three types of fiber Microtubules,
  52. Microtubules
    • 1. shape the cell
    • 2. Guide movement of organelles
    • 3. Help separate the chromosome copies in dividing cells
  53. The Centrosome
    • 1. is considered to be a microtubule-organizing center.
    • 2. contains a pair of centrioles
  54. Cilia and flagella
    • 1. Contains specialized arrangements microtubules
    • 2. Are locomotor appendages of some cells \.
  55. Cilia and flagella
    share a common ultrastructure
  56. The Protein dynein
    is responsible for the bending movement of cilia and flagella.
  57. microfilaments
    • 1. are built from molecules of the protein actin.
    • 2. They are found in microvilli.
  58. microfilaments that function in cellular motility
    contain the protein myosin in addition to actin.
  59. Amoeboid movement
    involves the contraction of actin and myosin filaments
  60. Cytoplasmic streaming
    is another form of locomotion created by microfilaments.
  61. Intermediate filaments
    • 1.support shape cell
    • 2.fix organelles in place
  62. Extracellular components and connections between cells
    help coordinate cellular activities
  63. The cell wall
    is an extracellular structure of plant cells that distinguishes them from animal cells.
  64. Plant cell walls
    • 1. Are made of cellulose fibers embedded in other polysaccharides and protein
    • 2. Man have multiple layers
  65. Animal cells
    • 1. lack cell walls
    • 2. Are covered by the elaborate matrix, the ECM
  66. Extracellular Matrix (ECM)
    is made up of glycoproteins and other macromolecules.
  67. Extracellular Functions
    • 1. Support
    • 2. Adhesion
    • 3. Movement
    • 4. Regulation
  68. Plants (Plasmodesmata)
    are channels that perforate plant cell walls
  69. Animals three type of intercellular junctions
    • 1. Tight Junctions(the glue)
    • 2. Desmosomes(snaps or buttons, they whole to cells together but do not seal)
    • 3. Gap junctions(provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells)
    • 4. All the junctions are made out of protein
  70. intercellular
    between cells

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