Millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer, gram, cubic meter, kelvin, second
what is the difference between a mineral and a rock?
Rocks are made up of minerals
Igneous rocks form when..
Lava/magma cools and crystallizes
How are igneous rocks classified?
Basaltic, granitic, intermediate, ultrabasic
Dark, low silica
Light, high silica
in between basaltic and granitic
contain only iron rich minerals
Where do we look for valuable gems and ores?
How does weathering affect sedimentation?
It produces rock and mineral fragments (sediments)
How are sediments transported
Process of Deposition:
Sediments are transported and deposited on the ground or sink to the bottom of a body of water
conglomerates and breccias
Very Fine Grained
Clastic formed by..
Abundant deposits of loose sediments
Biochemical rocks formed by..
Remains of once living organisms
CHemical rocks formed by..
When water reaches saturation, crystals gains precipitate out and settle to the bottom
Difference between foliated and non-foliated:
Foliated rocks have wavy layers and bands of light and dark minerals
Non-foliated rocks have minerals with blocky crystal shapes
Explain the Rock Cycle:
Heat and pressure turn sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks. The metamorphic rocks melt into magma, then cool and crystallize and form igneous rocks. Igneous rocks get uplifted, weathered and eroded which get turned into sediments, which then go though the processes of deposition, burial and lithification which get turned back into sedimentary rocks.
*igneous rocks can undergo heat and pressure and turn into metamorphic rocks
*metamorphic rocks can be uplifted to undergo weathering and erosion to become sediments to be turned into sedimentary rocks
How does moving water carve a landscape?
It erodes away at the land, creating streams, rivers, watersheds, lakes, canyons, and stream valleys
One way water can carry its load: Solution
Carrying method of transported sediments that are dissolved in a streams water
One way water can carry its load: Suspension
Transportation method for small particles like silt, clay and sand.
One way water can carry its load: Bed Load
Sediment that is too large or heavy to be held up by turbulent water. Consists of sand, pebbles, and cobble
Factors that determine if precip. will become runoff or infiltrate:
Slope, vegetation, rate of precip., Soil composition, and infiltration rate
Bend or curve in river
Stream begins to flow straight again after a lot of curves and deposits of sediments at the edge, cutting off a meander
When a stream gets closer to base level, it loses velocity and then flows into a flat area and drops sediment
Deposit usually consisting of layers of silt and clay
Maximum velocity (of stream)
on outside of stream
Minimum Velocity (of stream)
On inside of stream
Deposition (in stream)
Inside of the meander
What threats exist to surface water
Pesticides, waste, laundry detergents, etc.
How pollution affects a watershed:
Algae blooms, uses up oxygen, takes oxygen away from fish and plants in water, fish die, decaying fish take up more oxygen
Overuse of groundwater
IF groundwater is pumped out at a rate greater than the recharge rate, the groundwater supply will decrease and the water table will drop
Subsidence of groundwater
Excessive withdrawal of groundwater can also cause the sinking of land
Pollution of groundwater
Sewage from faulty septic tanks and farms, landfills, and other waste disposal sites
Process of sea-floor spreading
New ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and then destroyed at deep sea trenches
Magma rises through cracks and gets pushed outwards
features: rift valleys and trenches
Ocean plate is less dense and sinks beneath not-as-dense oceanic plate (subduction)
Features: Ocean trenches and Volcanic Island arcs
Less dense oceanic plate descends beneath continental plate
Features: Volcanic mountain ranges form along edge of continental plate and trenches
Continental crusts collide with one another and get pushed upwards
Two plates slide past each other horizontally; crust is only deformed or fractured
Major layers and compositions of each (of earth)
Inner core- solid
outer core- liquid
Broad gently sloping sides; forms from accumulating lava on Earth's surface; largest type of volcano, nonexlposive
Ejected tephra in the air forms cindercones; steep sides; generally small
Forms from layers of hardened lava alternating with layers of oozing lava; cone shaped; 2nd biggest; violent eruptions; cycle of quiet and explosive periods
50% or lower silica; low viscosity; quiet eruptions; fast flowing lava
50-60% silica; intermediate viscosity + eruptions; medium flowing lava
60%+ silica; explosive eruptions; high viscosity; slow flowing lava
Primary Waves (earthquake)
First set of waves; squeeze and push rocks; compression; goes through liquids and solids; pass through earth's interior; body waves; move back and forth
Secondary waves (earthquake)
second set; slower then p-waves; move at right angles in relation to the direction of the waves; pass through earth's interior; body waves
third set of waves; slowest; travel on the surface; move back and forth; move in two directions as they pass through rock; move up and down
Factors that affect amount of damage caused by an earthquake:
ground type, structure of buildings, land and soil liquefaction
What determines the probability of an earthquake
seismic risk, recurrence rate, seismic gap, and stress accumulation
Describe how frequency and wavelength are related
low frequency has long wavelengths, and high frequency has short wavelengths
Innermost of sun, visible layer, visible light emitted
Second layer of sun, usually only visible during solar eclipse, appears red, emits UV rays
Outermost layer of sun, so dim because of very low density, only visible when photosphere is blocked, emits x-rays
Arc of gas ejected out of the chromosphere (sun fart)
violent eruptions of particles and radiation from surface of the sun
Charged particles (ions) flow from the corona.. **causes northern lights
Suns magnetic field disturbs photosphere. Dark spots on the photosphere
Only detected with x-rays, often located over sunspots. Solar wind escapes through
How is energy produced in the sun?
Five circumpolar constellations
ursa major, ursa minor, draco, cepheus, cassiopia
12 constellations along ecliptic line
Brightness of star
depends on both the luminosity and distance from earth