science studyness.txt

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Anonymous
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23709
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science studyness.txt
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2010-06-15 19:20:32
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earth science
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Final studying
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  1. Units of the Metric System
    Millimeter, centimeter, meter, kilometer, gram, cubic meter, kelvin, second
  2. what is the difference between a mineral and a rock?
    Rocks are made up of minerals
  3. Igneous rocks form when..
    Lava/magma cools and crystallizes
  4. How are igneous rocks classified?
    Basaltic, granitic, intermediate, ultrabasic
  5. Basaltic
    Dark, low silica
  6. Granitic
    Light, high silica
  7. Intermediate
    in between basaltic and granitic
  8. Ultrabasic
    contain only iron rich minerals
  9. Where do we look for valuable gems and ores?
    Veins
  10. How does weathering affect sedimentation?
    It produces rock and mineral fragments (sediments)
  11. How are sediments transported
    Erosion
  12. Process of Deposition:
    Sediments are transported and deposited on the ground or sink to the bottom of a body of water
  13. Coarse grained
    conglomerates and breccias
  14. Medium grained
    Sandstone
  15. Fine grained
    Siltstone
  16. Very Fine Grained
    Shale
  17. Clastic formed by..
    Abundant deposits of loose sediments
  18. Biochemical rocks formed by..
    Remains of once living organisms
  19. CHemical rocks formed by..
    When water reaches saturation, crystals gains precipitate out and settle to the bottom
  20. Difference between foliated and non-foliated:
    • Foliated rocks have wavy layers and bands of light and dark minerals
    • Non-foliated rocks have minerals with blocky crystal shapes
  21. Explain the Rock Cycle:
    • Heat and pressure turn sedimentary rocks into metamorphic rocks. The metamorphic rocks melt into magma, then cool and crystallize and form igneous rocks. Igneous rocks get uplifted, weathered and eroded which get turned into sediments, which then go though the processes of deposition, burial and lithification which get turned back into sedimentary rocks.
    • *igneous rocks can undergo heat and pressure and turn into metamorphic rocks
    • *metamorphic rocks can be uplifted to undergo weathering and erosion to become sediments to be turned into sedimentary rocks
  22. How does moving water carve a landscape?
    It erodes away at the land, creating streams, rivers, watersheds, lakes, canyons, and stream valleys
  23. One way water can carry its load: Solution
    Carrying method of transported sediments that are dissolved in a streams water
  24. One way water can carry its load: Suspension
    Transportation method for small particles like silt, clay and sand.
  25. One way water can carry its load: Bed Load
    Sediment that is too large or heavy to be held up by turbulent water. Consists of sand, pebbles, and cobble
  26. Factors that determine if precip. will become runoff or infiltrate:
    Slope, vegetation, rate of precip., Soil composition, and infiltration rate
  27. Meander
    Bend or curve in river
  28. Oxbow Lake
    Stream begins to flow straight again after a lot of curves and deposits of sediments at the edge, cutting off a meander
  29. Alluvial Fan
    When a stream gets closer to base level, it loses velocity and then flows into a flat area and drops sediment
  30. Delta
    Deposit usually consisting of layers of silt and clay
  31. Maximum velocity (of stream)
    on outside of stream
  32. Minimum Velocity (of stream)
    On inside of stream
  33. Deposition (in stream)
    Inside of the meander
  34. What threats exist to surface water
    Pesticides, waste, laundry detergents, etc.
  35. How pollution affects a watershed:
    Algae blooms, uses up oxygen, takes oxygen away from fish and plants in water, fish die, decaying fish take up more oxygen
  36. Overuse of groundwater
    IF groundwater is pumped out at a rate greater than the recharge rate, the groundwater supply will decrease and the water table will drop
  37. Subsidence of groundwater
    Excessive withdrawal of groundwater can also cause the sinking of land
  38. Pollution of groundwater
    Sewage from faulty septic tanks and farms, landfills, and other waste disposal sites
  39. Process of sea-floor spreading
    New ocean crust is formed at ocean ridges and then destroyed at deep sea trenches
  40. Divergent Boundaries
    • Magma rises through cracks and gets pushed outwards
    • features: rift valleys and trenches
  41. Oceanic-Oceanic Convergent
    • Ocean plate is less dense and sinks beneath not-as-dense oceanic plate (subduction)
    • Features: Ocean trenches and Volcanic Island arcs
  42. Oceanic-Continental
    • Less dense oceanic plate descends beneath continental plate
    • Features: Volcanic mountain ranges form along edge of continental plate and trenches
  43. Continental-Continental
    • Continental crusts collide with one another and get pushed upwards
    • Features: Mountains
  44. Transform Boundary
    • Two plates slide past each other horizontally; crust is only deformed or fractured
    • Features: Faults
  45. Major layers and compositions of each (of earth)
    • Inner core- solid
    • outer core- liquid
    • mantle
    • crust
  46. Shield Volcano
    Broad gently sloping sides; forms from accumulating lava on Earth's surface; largest type of volcano, nonexlposive
  47. Cindercone Volcano
    Ejected tephra in the air forms cindercones; steep sides; generally small
  48. Composite Volcano
    Forms from layers of hardened lava alternating with layers of oozing lava; cone shaped; 2nd biggest; violent eruptions; cycle of quiet and explosive periods
  49. Basaltic Magma
    50% or lower silica; low viscosity; quiet eruptions; fast flowing lava
  50. Andesitic Magma
    50-60% silica; intermediate viscosity + eruptions; medium flowing lava
  51. Rhylitic Magma
    60%+ silica; explosive eruptions; high viscosity; slow flowing lava
  52. Primary Waves (earthquake)
    First set of waves; squeeze and push rocks; compression; goes through liquids and solids; pass through earth's interior; body waves; move back and forth
  53. Secondary waves (earthquake)
    second set; slower then p-waves; move at right angles in relation to the direction of the waves; pass through earth's interior; body waves
  54. Surface waves
    third set of waves; slowest; travel on the surface; move back and forth; move in two directions as they pass through rock; move up and down
  55. Factors that affect amount of damage caused by an earthquake:
    ground type, structure of buildings, land and soil liquefaction
  56. What determines the probability of an earthquake
    seismic risk, recurrence rate, seismic gap, and stress accumulation
  57. Describe how frequency and wavelength are related
    low frequency has long wavelengths, and high frequency has short wavelengths
  58. Photosphere
    Innermost of sun, visible layer, visible light emitted
  59. Chromosphere
    Second layer of sun, usually only visible during solar eclipse, appears red, emits UV rays
  60. Corona
    Outermost layer of sun, so dim because of very low density, only visible when photosphere is blocked, emits x-rays
  61. Prominence
    Arc of gas ejected out of the chromosphere (sun fart)
  62. Solar flare
    violent eruptions of particles and radiation from surface of the sun
  63. Solar wind
    Charged particles (ions) flow from the corona.. **causes northern lights
  64. Sunspots
    Suns magnetic field disturbs photosphere. Dark spots on the photosphere
  65. Coronal Hole
    Only detected with x-rays, often located over sunspots. Solar wind escapes through
  66. How is energy produced in the sun?
    Nuclear Fusion
  67. Five circumpolar constellations
    ursa major, ursa minor, draco, cepheus, cassiopia
  68. 12 constellations along ecliptic line
    zodiac
  69. Brightness of star
    depends on both the luminosity and distance from earth
  70. Luminosity of star
    energy output of a star

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