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a capacity for adaptive recognization at the neurological, psychological, and behavioral levels.
refers to patterns of growth and reorganization. Change may be attributed to biological maturation, systemic socialization, self-directed striving, and to interaction of theses forces.
Wrote that human life as the individual experiences it is produced by the interaction and modification of three major systems: The biological system, the psychological system, and the societal system.
each system can be examined for patterns of continuity and change over the life course.
The Biological System
Includes all those necessary for the physical functioning of the organism and for mental activity.
It develops and change as consequence of genetically guided maturation, environmental stimulation and resources, including social interactions, cognitive challanges and nutrition...
includes mental processes central to a persons ability to make meaning of experiences and take action.
Emotional, memory,symbolic abilities, and one's orientation to the future are examples of this system.
The Societal System
includes social roles, social support; culture, including rituals, myths, and social experiences; media; leadership styles; communication patterns; family organization; ethnic and subculture influences.
seeks to understand development as a product of interactions among biological,psychological , and societal process, changes in one of the three system (biological, psychological, and societal)
What is theory?
It is a logical system of concepts that helps explain observations and contributes to the development of a body of knowledge.
The law of natural selection
explains how, over generations, species gradually change to respond to changing environmental conditions.
operates at the level of genes that are passed, via an organisms reproductive process from one generation to the next.
Some individual are better suited than others to their immediate environment and were more likely to survive, mate and reproduce offspring.
the breaking away from an earlier evolutionary lineage and the establishment of a new branch in the phylogenetic tree.
the idea suggest that fitness is not only determined by an individual's success in passing genes along to the next generation through reproduction. Its selected if the genes are passed along to the next generation by promoting the survival and reproductive success to others who carry those genes.
focus on the impact of sexual and aggressive drives on the individuals pyschosocial functioning.
7 ideas from psychosexual theory
- motivation and behavior
- domains of consciousness
- the structure of personality
- stages of development
- defense mechanisms
- object relations theory
- ego psychology
describes 3 components of personality; id, ego and the superego.
- stages of development:
- oral stage
- anal stage
every organism strives to achieve equilibrium.
equilibrium is achieved through...a process of gradually modifying existing schemes and operations in order to take into account changes or discrepancies between what is known and what is being experienced.
development can be understood only within a social-historical framework. higher language and meaning emerge from the child's ongoing interactions within social, historical, and cultural as well as biological maturation.
- sensormotor intelligence
- pre operational thought
- concrete operational thought
- formal operational thought
- intermental process
- inner speech
- egocentric speech
- zone of proximal development
Social Learning theory
evolved from the awareness that much learning takes place as a result of observation and imitation of other people's behavior.
referes to the learned systems of meaning and patterns of behaviors that are shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
consists of norms, roles,beliefs, values, rites and customs
the individuals psychological experiences are shaped by the expectations, resources, and challenges posed by ones specific cultural group.
is found when a child is given information and responsibilities that apply directly to that childs future adult behavior.
is found when a child is either barred from activities that are open only to adults or is forced to "unlearn" information or behaviors that are accepted in children but considered inappropriate for adults.
referes to a worldwide in which social behavior is guided largely by personal goals, ambitions, and pleasures, which may or may not coincide with the interest of the group.
refers to a worldwide in which social behavior is guided largely by goals thats are shared by a collective, such as a family,tribe,work group,or political or religious association.
the effect of the environment on development has suggested by social psychologists such as Orville brim
ia any set of behaviors that has a socially agreed-upon function and an accepted code of norms.
when a role is linked to one or more related or_____. the and the teacher, the parent and the child etc.
Ludwig von bertalanffy
open systems that maintain their organization even through their parts constantly changing.