Chapter 30: Plant Diversity II

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  1. Seed plants originated ______ years ago!
    360 Million years ago!!
  2. Seed:
    Embryo and it's food supply surrounded by a protective coat
  3. Traits of a seed:
    • Seeds can move away from mother plant
    • Seed plants are dominant producers on land
    • 12,000 years ago humans began cultivating plants
  4. Which type of plants are dominant producers on land?
    Seed plants
  5. ____ years ago humans began cultivating plants.
    12,000 years ago
  6. What are the two key adaptions for life on land for plants?
    • Seeds
    • Pollen
  7. Name the 5 derived traits of seed plants (ReGa HOPS)
    • Reduced Gametophytes
    • Heterospory
    • Ovules
    • Pollen
    • Seeds
  8. Reduced gametophytes: microscopic male and female gametophytes (n) are nourished and protected by the _____ (2N).
  9. Heterospory:
    • microspore gives rse to male gametophyte
    • megaspore-gives rise to female gametophyte
  10. What heterospory:
    two different types of spore
  11. Microspore:
    gives rise to male gametophyte
  12. Megaspore:
    gives rise to female gametophyte
  13. What happens in the Ovules?
    Inside each ovule a female develops from a megaspore and and produces one or more eggs.
  14. What are the advantages of pollen?
    • grains make water unnecessary for fertilization;
    • pollination occurs when pollen is transferred to the part of the seed plant that contains the ovules
  15. What is the advantage of Seeds vs spores?
    • seeds survive better than unprotected spores
    • can be transported long distances (by wind or animals)
  16. Gymnosperms:
    Plants with "naked seeds"
  17. Why are gymnosperms called "naked seeds" ?
    Beause the ovules are not completely enclosed in sporophyte tissue at pollination
  18. Does pollination occur before or after fertilization?
    Before!! The gymnosperm must be pollinated before it can be fertilized.
  19. Pollination:
    pollen has been deposited on the female part of the plant
  20. Fertilization:
    fusion of sperm and egg nucleus
  21. What are the 4 groups of gymnosperms? (ccgg)
    • 1. coniferophytes
    • 2. cycadophytes
    • 3. gnetophytes
    • 4. ginkgophytes
  22. Which gymnosperms lack flowers and true fruits?
  23. What is the largest gymnosperm phylum?
  24. Name the traits of Conifers, and give some examples:
    • Tallest and oldest vascular plants
    • pines
    • spruces
    • firs
    • cedars
  25. ____ are an exemplary conifer genus
  26. Characteristics of pines
    • Clusters of two to five rough, needlelike leaves
    • produce male and female cones
    • microsporangia develops into four-celled(n) pollen grains
    • megasporangium(2n) produces megaspores one of which becomes female gametophyte (2n)
  27. The microsporangia of pines develop into ___ celled pollen grains.
    four-celes (haploid)
  28. Megasporangum produces ____
  29. One of the megaspores produced by megasporangium in pines becomes the _____.
    female gametophyte (diploid)
  30. Which of the following components of the pine life cycle is haploid?
    A. microsporangia --> four-celled pollen
    B. megaspore --> female gametophyte
    C. microsporangium --> megaspores
    A. four-celled pollen is haploid (n)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. In a fertilized pine gametophyte, which components are diploid and which are haploid?
    a. seed coat
    b. food reserve
    c. embryo
    • Diploid: seed coat
    • Haploid: Food reserve, embryo
  32. Cycads resemble ___ but are NOT flowering plants.
  33. Cycads:
    • Heights of 15 meters or more
    • Produce cones
    • Some female cones are huge
    • Sperm have flagella
    • Life cycle like that of conifers
  34. Gnetophytes:
    • Only gymnosperms to have vessels in their xylem
    • Welwitschia from southwest Africa
    • Ephedra found worldwide; source of ephedrine
  35. Which gymnosperms are the only ones to have vessels in their xylem?
  36. Name two Gnetophytes:
    • Welwitschia - found in southwest Africa
    • Ephedra - worldwide
  37. This gnetophyte is the source of Ephedrine
    • Epherda (Mormon Tea)
    • Taken off the market because it is linked to strokes and heart attacks
  38. Ginkophytes
    • Only one species remains in existence
    • Ginko Biloba- has broad leaves that are shed in the fall
    • Sperm have flagella
    • Diecious
    • Fleshy covering of female seeds is very stinky like rancid butter
  39. What does Dioecious mean?
    Two houses: separate male and female trees (Gingko Biloba)
  40. What is the only species of ginkophyte left?
    Gingko biloba
  41. Which two types of gymnosperm have sperm with flagella?
    • Cycads
    • Ginkophytes
  42. Angiosperms, aka...
    The flowering plants
  43. There are more than _____ known species of angiosperms.
  44. What are the two defining characteristics of Angiosperms?
    • Enclosed ovules within diploid tissue at the time of pollination
    • Produce fruit (from the carpel)
  45. What was the first angiosperm?
    • Angiosperm origins are a mystery!
    • Amborella trichopoda are thought to be the closest living relative to the first angiosperm
  46. Two clades of angiosperms?
    • Archaefructaceae (extinct family) may be a sister clade, but debated
    • Amborella trichopoda
  47. What houses the gametophyte generation of angiosperms?
    The flower
  48. What are flowers, reallt?
    Modified stems that bear modified leaves
  49. Flowers have ___ whorls:
  50. Name the 4 whorls of a flower, from the inside to the outside (GAPS):
    • Gynoecium (female house) = one or more carpels
    • Androecium: (male house) = stamens
    • Petals: 3-5 and often colored
    • Sepals: 3-5 and green, leaflike
  51. Stamens produce (diploid/haploid) pollen (the male gametophyte)
    HAPLOID pollen
  52. Carpel has three major regions:
    • Ovary
    • Stigma
    • Style
  53. In angiosperms, the ___ becomes the fruit.
    The ovary
  54. Carpals contain the (male/female) gametophyte
  55. Why are fruits adapted?
    For dispersal
  56. What are the three layers of the ovary wall?
    • Exocarp
    • Mesocarp
    • Endocarp
  57. Collectivly, the three layers of the ovary wall (exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp) are known as _____.
    the Pericarp.
  58. The fates of the three layers of the ovary determine wheather the fruit is ____, or ____ and ____.
    Fleshy, or dry and hard
  59. Why have angiosperms produced seeds?
    To colonize large areas
  60. What are the main ways that fruit is dispersed for colonization?
    • 1. Fruit with black, blue or red colors are dispersed by birds and verterbrates
    • 2. Fruits with hooked spines (burrs) are dispersed on animal fur or clothing
    • 3. Squirrels and other mammals bury acorns or other nuts that may sprout
    • 4. Fruits or maple, ash, and elm trees have "wings" that aid in wind dispersal
    • 5. Orchids have dustlike seeds that are wind blown
    • 6. Dandelions have seeds with parachutes that float on wind currents. Milkweeds, cottonwood trees, willows, goats beard, etc
    • 7. Coconuts can float on water for dispersal to another island.
  61. Fruits of which colors are disperse by birds and vertebrates?
    Red, Black, Blue
  62. ___ have dustlike seeds that are wind blown
  63. What fruit floats on water to be dispersed on other islands?
  64. Hesperidium:
    Citrus fruit
  65. Drupe:
    Fruits with a single pit
  66. Pomes:
    • Apples and pears
    • Parts of 5
    • Members of the rose family
  67. Most species of angiosperms use flowers to do what?
    Attract pollinators and to reproduce
  68. How do angiosperms use flowers to attract pollinators?
    • Nectaries
    • Scent
  69. Nectaries
    Flowers have ultraviolet landing strips for insects that guide them to the pollen
  70. Are all flowers pollinated by pollinators?
    No. Some are pollinated though wind-pollination
  71. The angiosperm life cycle includes ____ fertilization
  72. Life cycle of angiosperm
    Image Upload
  73. In angiosperms, the megaspores produce how many nuclei? Haploid or diploid?
    8 haploid nuclei
  74. Female gametophyte consists of embryo sac and the 8 nuclei in only___ cells.
    in only seven cells
  75. What is the most important part of the female gametophyte in angiosperm?
    • The egg
    • Two polar nuclei in the single cell
  76. Pollen grains form a ____ toward the embryo sac after landing on the receptive stigma.
    pollen tube
  77. How many sperms pass through the pollen tube in the reproduction of angiosperm?
  78. Two sperm pass through the pollen tube during angiosperm fertilization. What does each do?
    • One fuses with the egg to form the zygote
    • Other fuses with polar bodis to form triploid endosperm nucleus
  79. Where does the triploid endosperm nucleus come from in angiosperm reproductioin?
    From the fusion of one out of two pollen sperms with the polar bodies in the female gametophyte.
  80. What is the purpose of the triploid endosperm nucleus in angiosperm reproduction?
    To nourish the embryo (kind of like the placenta in pregnant females)
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Chapter 30: Plant Diversity II
2013-09-27 21:19:43

The Evolution of Seed Plants
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