Bio 2 Genes
Card Set Information
Bio 2 Genes
Bio 2 Genes
Nucleic acid bond number memory device?
Type of nucleic acid memory device?
Put in alphabetical order. Middle two make 3 bonds or "A2T" "C3G"
All nucleic acids with Y are pyrimidines.
5 steps of Replication
: RNA Primer
: Polymerase assembles leading and lagging strands
: Remove primer
Difference between a Primer and Promoter.
: made of RNA, added to DNA for replication
: made of DNA, used by polymerase to start RNA transcription
What are the two strands of DNA named and what is each function?
Western vs southern vs northern blot
Name the Stop and start codons. How do probabilities related to codons work? How many amino acid sequences are possible in a polypeptide with 100 amino acids?
: UAA, UAG, UGA
number of possible nucleotides^number of positions avaliable
Steps of translation
: Initiation - 5' attachment to small rib. tRNA with 5' cap binds P-site, lrg subunit joins forming initiation complex
: Elongation - next tRNA binds A-site, translocation occurs - p-site -->e-site; A-site-->p-site 2 GDPs used
: Termination - stop codon signals termination
What signals a ribosome to translate into ER?
Signal peptide sequence at beggining of forming polypeptide is recognized by a signal-recognition particle and transported to RER
Describe all mutations and consequences.
Define: Nucleosome, Histone,
: DNA wrapped around 8 histones
: globular protein which DNA wraps around to help pack it in nucleus
Chromatin vs Chromosome vs Chromatid. How many of each do we have and why?
: overall name of DNA complex (like car which can be in the sport car form or truck form...)
: the doublestranded protein (histones)/DNA molecule unwound found during interphase
: is during s-phase. And represents unwound, but copied chromatin. Each of the two chromatins are chromatids and called sisters.
: is specifically the condesnsed form of chromatin.
How is Meiosis different from Mitosis?
: Meiosis has 2 rounds of division. The first round, everything is doubled.
: Metaphase II of meiosis looks like metaphase I of Mitosis, Metaphase I of meiosis looks different.
: Genetic recombination occurs during prophase I in Meiosis.
Describe development of gametes. Names and n at each stage.
Meiosis 1. Describe phases and type of division.
: homologous chromosomes (one paternal, one maternal - each chromtin has been duplicated. 4 chromatids total (
: crossing over may occur
: tetrads align on metaphase plate. Independent assortment occurs
: 1:seperates homolgues (sister chromatids stay together)
: nuclear membrans may or may not form. If so, secondary spermatocytes or oocytes are formed. These have 23 replicated chromosomes and are haploid.
: First polar body forms in females
Primary vs secondary spermatocyte/oocyte
: is diploid and a result of the spermatogonium or oogonium duplicating its chromosomes. (1 Tetrads)
: Is haploid because homologues have been seperated by one round of reduction division. (1/2 Tetrad)