Bio 2 Genes

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Bio 2 Genes
2013-09-26 17:18:14
Bio Genes

Bio 2 Genes
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  1. Nucleic acid bond number memory device?
    Type of nucleic acid memory device?
    • Put in alphabetical order.  Middle two make 3 bonds or "A2T" "C3G"
    • All nucleic acids with Y are pyrimidines.
  2. 5 steps of Replication
    • 1: Helicase
    • 2: RNA Primer
    • 3: Polymerase assembles leading and lagging strands
    • 4: Remove primer
    • 5: Ligate
  3. Difference between a Primer and Promoter.
    • Primer: made of RNA, added to DNA for replication
    • Promoter: made of DNA, used by polymerase to start RNA transcription
  4. What are the two strands of DNA named and what is each function?
    • Template/antisense/(-): transcription
    • Coding/Sense/(+): Protection/stabilization
  5. Western vs southern vs northern blot
    • Western: protein
    • Southern: DNA
    • Northern: RNA
  6. Name the Stop and start codons.  How do probabilities related to codons work? How many amino acid sequences are possible in a polypeptide with 100 amino acids?
    • Stop: UAA, UAG, UGA
    • Start: AUG
    • number of possible nucleotides^number of positions avaliable
    • 20^(100)
  7. Steps of translation
    • 1: Initiation - 5' attachment to small rib. tRNA with 5' cap binds P-site, lrg subunit joins forming initiation complex
    • 2: Elongation - next tRNA binds A-site, translocation occurs - p-site -->e-site; A-site-->p-site 2 GDPs used
    • 3: Termination - stop codon signals termination
  8. What signals a ribosome to translate into ER?
    Signal peptide sequence at beggining of forming polypeptide is recognized by a signal-recognition particle and transported to RER
  9. Describe all mutations and consequences.
  10. Define: Nucleosome, Histone,
    • Nucleosome: DNA wrapped around 8 histones
    • Histone: globular protein which DNA wraps around to help pack it in nucleus
  11. Chromatin vs Chromosome vs Chromatid.  How many of each do we have and why?
    • Chromosome: overall name of DNA complex (like car which can be in the sport car form or truck form...)  
    • Chromatin: the doublestranded protein (histones)/DNA molecule unwound found during interphase
    • Chromatid: is during s-phase.  And represents unwound, but copied chromatin.  Each of the two chromatins are chromatids and called sisters.
    • Chromosome: is specifically the condesnsed form of chromatin.
  12. How is Meiosis different from Mitosis?
    • 1: Meiosis has 2 rounds of division.  The first round, everything is doubled.
    • 2: Metaphase II of meiosis looks like metaphase I of Mitosis, Metaphase I of meiosis looks different.  
    • 3: Genetic recombination occurs during prophase I in Meiosis.
  13. Describe development of gametes. Names and n at each stage.
  14. Meiosis 1. Describe phases and type of division.
    • Prophase 1: homologous chromosomes (one paternal, one maternal - each chromtin has been duplicated. 4 chromatids total (Tetrads)  
    • 2: crossing over may occur
    • Metaphase: tetrads align on metaphase plate. Independent assortment occurs
    • Anaphase: 1:seperates homolgues (sister chromatids stay together) 
    • Telophase: nuclear membrans may or may not form. If so, secondary spermatocytes or oocytes are formed.  These have 23 replicated chromosomes and are haploid.
    • 2: First polar body forms in females
    • Division: Reduction
  15. Primary vs secondary spermatocyte/oocyte
    • Primary: is diploid and a result of the spermatogonium or oogonium duplicating its chromosomes. (1 Tetrads) 
    • Secondary: Is haploid because homologues have been seperated by one round of reduction division. (1/2 Tetrad)