Bio 2 Genes
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Nucleic acid bond number memory device?
Type of nucleic acid memory device?
- Put in alphabetical order. Middle two make 3 bonds or "A2T" "C3G"
- All nucleic acids with Y are pyrimidines.
5 steps of Replication
- 1: Helicase
- 2: RNA Primer
- 3: Polymerase assembles leading and lagging strands
- 4: Remove primer
- 5: Ligate
Difference between a Primer and Promoter.
- Primer: made of RNA, added to DNA for replication
- Promoter: made of DNA, used by polymerase to start RNA transcription
What are the two strands of DNA named and what is each function?
- Template/antisense/(-): transcription
- Coding/Sense/(+): Protection/stabilization
Western vs southern vs northern blot
- Western: protein
- Southern: DNA
- Northern: RNA
Name the Stop and start codons. How do probabilities related to codons work? How many amino acid sequences are possible in a polypeptide with 100 amino acids?
- Stop: UAA, UAG, UGA
- Start: AUG
- number of possible nucleotides^number of positions avaliable
Steps of translation
- 1: Initiation - 5' attachment to small rib. tRNA with 5' cap binds P-site, lrg subunit joins forming initiation complex
- 2: Elongation - next tRNA binds A-site, translocation occurs - p-site -->e-site; A-site-->p-site 2 GDPs used
- 3: Termination - stop codon signals termination
What signals a ribosome to translate into ER?
Signal peptide sequence at beggining of forming polypeptide is recognized by a signal-recognition particle and transported to RER
Describe all mutations and consequences.
Define: Nucleosome, Histone,
- Nucleosome: DNA wrapped around 8 histones
- Histone: globular protein which DNA wraps around to help pack it in nucleus
Chromatin vs Chromosome vs Chromatid. How many of each do we have and why?
- Chromosome: overall name of DNA complex (like car which can be in the sport car form or truck form...)
- Chromatin: the doublestranded protein (histones)/DNA molecule unwound found during interphase
- Chromatid: is during s-phase. And represents unwound, but copied chromatin. Each of the two chromatins are chromatids and called sisters.
- Chromosome: is specifically the condesnsed form of chromatin.
How is Meiosis different from Mitosis?
- 1: Meiosis has 2 rounds of division. The first round, everything is doubled.
- 2: Metaphase II of meiosis looks like metaphase I of Mitosis, Metaphase I of meiosis looks different.
- 3: Genetic recombination occurs during prophase I in Meiosis.
Describe development of gametes. Names and n at each stage.
Meiosis 1. Describe phases and type of division.
- Prophase 1: homologous chromosomes (one paternal, one maternal - each chromtin has been duplicated. 4 chromatids total (Tetrads)
- 2: crossing over may occur
- Metaphase: tetrads align on metaphase plate. Independent assortment occurs
- Anaphase: 1:seperates homolgues (sister chromatids stay together)
- Telophase: nuclear membrans may or may not form. If so, secondary spermatocytes or oocytes are formed. These have 23 replicated chromosomes and are haploid.
- 2: First polar body forms in females
- Division: Reduction
Primary vs secondary spermatocyte/oocyte
- Primary: is diploid and a result of the spermatogonium or oogonium duplicating its chromosomes. (1 Tetrads)
- Secondary: Is haploid because homologues have been seperated by one round of reduction division. (1/2 Tetrad)
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