Sociology_ch_1-4

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cj_student
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237114
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Sociology_ch_1-4
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2013-09-27 23:39:26
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Vocabulary Sociology Chapter
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Vocabulary words and phrases for Sociology 2013 Fall term at FVTC
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  1. Sociology (p2)
    Systematic study of human society.
  2. Sociological Perspective (p2)
    The Special point of view of sociology that sees general patterns of society in the lives of particular people.
  3. Global Perspective (p5)
    The study of the larger world and our society's place in it.
  4. High-income countries (p5)
    The nations with the highest overall standards of living.
  5. Middle-income countries (p5)
    Nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole.
  6. Low-income countries (p6)
    Nations with a low standard of living, in which most people are poor.
  7. Positivism (p9)
    A scientific approach to knowledge based on "positive" facts as opposed to mere speculation.
  8. (macro-level)
    Structural-Functional Approach (p10-11)
    Explores how social structures work together to help society operate.

    Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, and Herbert Spencer helped develop the structural-functional approach.
  9. (macro-level)

    Social-conflict Approach (p11-14)
    Shows how inequality creates conflict and causes change.

    Two important types of conflict analysis are gender-conflict theory, which is also call feminism, and race-conflict theory.

    Karl Marx helped develop the social-conflict approach.
  10. (micro-level)

    Symbolic-Interaction approach (p14,16)
    Studies how people, in everyday interaction, construct reality.

    Max Weber and George Herbert Mead helped develop of the social-interaction approach.
  11. Theory (p10)
    A statement of how and why specific facts are related.
  12. Structural-functional approach (p12)
    A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.
  13. Social Functions (p10)
    The consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole.
  14. Manifest Functions (p11)
    The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern.
  15. Latent Functions (p11)
    The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern.
  16. Social Dysfunction (p11)
    Any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society.
  17. Research method (p21)
    A systematic plan for doing research.
  18. Experiment (p21)
    A research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions.
  19. Survey (p23)
    A research method in which subjects respond to a series of statement or question on a questionnaire or in an interview.
  20. Participant Observation (p24)
    A research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities.
  21. Stereotype (p29)
    A simplified description applied to every person in some category.
  22. Culture (p36)
    The ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a peoples way of life.
  23. Nonmaterial Culture (p36)
    The ideas created by members of a society.
  24. Material Culture (p37)
    The physical things created by members of a society.
  25. Culture Shock (p38)
    Personal disorientation when experiencing and unfamiliar way of life.
  26. Symbol (p40)
    Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
  27. Language (p41)
    A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
  28. Cultural Transmission (p41)
    The process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
  29. Values (p41)
    Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.
  30. Beliefs (p41)
    Specific ideas that people hold to be true.
  31. Norms (p41)
    Rules and expectations by which a society guides that behavior of its members.
  32. Mores (p44)
    Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.
  33. Folkways (p44)
    Norms for routine or casual interaction.
  34. Culture (p36)
    The ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life.
  35. Nonmaterial Culture  (p36)
    The ideas created by members of a society.
  36. Material Culture (p36)
    The physical things created by members of a society.
  37. Culture Shock (p38)
    Personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life.
  38. Symbol (p40)
    Anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture.
  39. Language (p41)
    A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another.
  40. Cultural Transmission (p41)
    The process by which one generation passes culture to the next.
  41. Values (p41)
    Culturally defined standards that people use to decide what is desirable, good, and beautiful and that serve as broad guidelines for social living.
  42. Beliefs (p41)
    Specific ideas that people hold to be true.
  43. Norms (p44)
    Rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members.
  44. Mores (p44)
    Norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance.
  45. Folkways (p44)
    Norms for routine or casual interaction.
  46. High Culture (p48)
    Cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite.
  47. Popular Culture (p48)
    Cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population.
  48. Subculture (p48)
    Cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population.
  49. Multiculturalism (p48)
    A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions.
  50. Eurocentrism (p48)
    The dominance of European (especially English) cultural patterns.
  51. Counterculture (p49)
    Cultural pattens that strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society.
  52. Cultural Integration (p50)
    The close relationships among various elements of a cultural system.
  53. Cultural Lag (p50)
    The fact that some cultural elements change more quickly than others, disrupting a cultural system.
  54. Cultural Relativism (p51)
    The practice of judging a culture by its own standards.
  55. Structional-Functional Theory (p54)
    Views culture as a relatively stable system built on core values.  All cultural patterns play some part in the ongoing operation of society.
  56. Social Conflict Theory (p54)
    Sees culture as a dynamic arena of inequality and conflict.  Cultural patterns benefit some categories of people more than others.  Marx claimed that cultural patters reflect the operation of a society's economic system.
  57. Feminist Theory (p54-55)
    Is a type of social-conflict theory that sees culture as a system of inequality based on gender.
  58. Sociobiology Theory (p55-56)
    Explores how the long history of evolution has shaped patterns of culture in today's world.
  59. Socialization (p64)
    The lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture.
  60. Personality (p64)
    A person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling.
  61. Self (p69)
    George Herbert Mead's term for the part of an individual's personality composed of self-awareness and self-image.
  62. Looking-Glass Self (p69)
    Cooley's term for a self-image based on how we think others see us.
  63. Peer Group (p73)
    A social group whose members have interests, social position, and age in common.
  64. Anticipatory Socialization (p73)
    Learning that helps a person achieve a desired position.
  65. Mass Media (p74)
    The means for delivering impersonal communications to a vast audience.
  66. Total Institution (p80)
    A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and controlled by an administrative staff.
  67. Resocialization (p80)
    Radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment.
  68. Social Interaction (p88)
    The process by which people act and react in relation to others
  69. Status (p89)
    A social position that a person holds.
  70. Status Set (p89)
    All the statuses a person holds at a given time.
  71. Ascribed Status (p89)
    A social position a person receives at birth or takes on involuntarily later in life.
  72. Master Status (p89)
    A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person's entire life.
  73. Role (p89)
    Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status.
  74. Role Set (p90)
    A number of roles attached to a single status.
  75. Role Conflict (p90)
    Conflict among the roles connected to two of more statuses.
  76. Role Strain (p90)
    Tension among the roles connected to a single status.
  77. Social Construction of Reality (p91)
    The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.
  78. Thomas Theorem (p93)
    W. I. Thomas's claim that situations defined as real are real in their consequences.
  79. Dramaturgical Analysis (p94)
    Erving Goffman's term for the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance.
  80. Presentation of self (p94)
    Erving Goffman's term for a person's efforts to create specific impressions in the minds of others.
  81. Nonverbal Communication (p94)
    Communicating using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech.
  82. Personal Space (p95)
    The surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy.

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