psychology test 3 - 2013

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anatomy2012
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237128
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psychology test 3 - 2013
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2013-10-01 15:32:51
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Neuroscience
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chapter 3
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  1. Well preserved brain at Cornell University?

    NO
    Edward Titchener, 3lb brain
  2. Canadian Brain Surgeon touched peoples brain and found memory stored on surface of brain

    NO
    Dr. Wilder Penfield
  3. Individual cells in the nervous system that communicate with one another to perform information processing tasks (communicate without touching, many shapes and sizes)
    Neurons
  4. Neurons that are less than 1 millimeter in length are where
    your brain
  5. Neurons that are more than a meter in length are where
    finger to spinal cord, tip of toe to spinal cord
  6. what are the 3 components of a neuron?
    Cell body, dendrite, axon
  7. coordinates the information-processing tasks and keeps the cell alive: functions such energy production, protein synthesis, and metabolism
    Cell body (soma)
  8. cell body contains and is surrounded by
    • a nucleus houses chromosomes that contain DNA (genetic blue print)
    • surrounded by a porous semi-permeable membrane
  9. neurons have two types of specialized extensions of the cell membrane which allow them to communicate
    • Dendrites (means tree)
    • Axon (it acts on)
  10. receives info from other neurons and relay it to the cell body have many of these
    Dendrites (look like tree branches)
  11. transmits info to other neurons, muscles or glands.  There is only one of these per neuron and it can be very long up to a meter
    Axon (it acts on)
  12. support cells found in the nervous system
    Glial cells
  13. 10 to 50 times more of these than neurons - they clean up dead neruons and provede nutritional support for the neurons
    glial cells
  14. some of these form the myelin sheath
    glial cells
  15. an insulating layer of fatty material around the axon that speeds conduction and more efficiently transmit signals to other neurons, organs and muscles
    Myelin Sheath
  16. segments of axon between sections of myelin, which cause action potential to JUMP and thus speed conduction
    nodes of ranvier
  17. What happens in a demyelinating disease (multiple sclerosis)
    the myelin sheath deteriorates, causing a slowdown in the transmission of information from one neuron to another which leads to: loss of feeling in limbs, partial blindness, and difficulty in coordinating movement
  18. Small gap b/w the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another neuron is the
    A synapse
  19. what is the sequence in the transmission between neurons
    dendrite - cell body - axon - synapse - dendrite - cell body - axon - synapse
  20. _______ is fundamental to communication between neurons a process that allows us to think, feel and behave
    the transmission across the synapse
  21. When we talk about _____ _______ transmission among neurons we mean what
    electrochemical - the axon flings the chemicals into the synapse - its electricity that sets it off in the neuron
  22. what are the three major types of neurons
    sensory neurons, motor neurons, interneurons
  23. these neurons receive info from the external world and convey this info to the brain via the spinal cord
    sensory neurons
  24. these have specialized endings on their dendrites that receive signals for light, sound, touch, taste, and smell
    • sensory neurons
    • (endings are terminal buttons)
  25. carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement. have long axons that can stretch to muscles and extremities
    Motor neurons
  26. contact sensory neurons, motor neurons and other ______ most of the nervous system is composed of these
    interneurons
  27. communication within and between neurons proceeds in two stages

    NO
    conduction and transmission - together they are referred to as electrochemical action or process
  28. first step in electrochemical action or process

    NO
    the signal is received and initiates electrical conduction down the axon
  29. second step in electrochemical action or process

    NO
    signal travels chemically across the synapse to the next neuron
  30. third step in electrochemical action/process

    NO
    charged molecules or ions flow across the cell membrane differentially to set up the resting potential - this flow of ions across the cell membrane is controlled by opening and closing small channels that are specific to each ion
  31. At rest their is a higher concentration of ______ on the inside of the cell and ______ on the outside of the cell

    NO
    • potassium K+
    • sodium Na+
  32. the difference in electric charge b/w the inside and outside of a neurons cell membrane - its -70 millivolts

    NO
    resting potential
  33. an electrical signal that is conducted along the length of a neuron's axon to they synapse. input must pass a _____ to activate an ______ _____

    NO
    • threshold
    • action potential
  34. time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated

    NO
    Refractory period
  35. knoblike structures that branch out from the axon and pass neurotransmitters across the synapse
    terminal buttons
  36. chemicals that transmit information across the synapse to receiving neuron's dendrites or soma
    neurotransmitters
  37. some neurotransmitters are ______ and some are ________
    • excitatory (speeds up)
    • inhibitory (slows down)
  38. individual nerve cell
    neuron
  39. bunch of neurons are a
    nerve
  40. long thin tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the brain -- does not extend the entire length of the vertebral column. Lots of nerves together go through the ______ and equal the
    spinal cord
  41. what is included in the CNS
    • brain (100 billion neurons)
    • spinal cord
  42. what is included in the PNS
    • somatic nervous system
    • autonomic nervous system
  43. the nervous system responsible for all the voluntary things we do (skeletal muscles)
    ALSO
    a set of nerves that conveys information into and out of the central nervous system
    somatic (body) nervous system (SNS)
  44. the nervous system that is involuntary and takes care of itself
    • autonomic nervous system
    • breath, pump blood, digestion
  45. two components of the autonomic nervous system
    • parasympathetic (rest and digest)
    • sympathetic (fight or flight, arousing)
  46. Act as a lock and key system - part of the cell membrane that receive neurotransmitters
    • Receptors
    • (right chemicals have to go to the right receptors to work)
  47. An interacting network of neurons that conveys electrochemical information throughout the body
    nervous system
  48. very complex, creates and directs all of our emotions.  Different areas direct different parts of our body.  All the different parts work at the same time
    brain
  49. it is around 45 cm (18 in) in men and 43 cm (17in) in women
    spinal cord
  50. has varying width, from 1/2 inch thick in the cervical and lumbar regions to 1/4 inch thick in the thoracic area.
    spinal cord
  51. coordinates breathing, pain, movement and other functions
    spinal cord
  52. simple pathways in the nervous system that travel through the spinal cord and on to the brain

    NO
    spinal reflexes
  53. damage to the spinal cord severs the connection from the brain to sensory and motor neurons essential to sensory perception and movement

    NO
    spinal reflexes
  54. connects the central nervous system to the bodys organs and muscles
    PNS
  55. the highest level of the brain, controlling complex cognitive emotional sensory and motor functions
    the forebrain
  56. the outermost layer of the brain,and divided into two hemispheres. 4 or 5 levels thick, memory stored here
    cerebral cortex
  57. the largest commissure, it connects large areas of the cerebral cortex on each side of the brain and supports communication of information across the hemispheres
    corpus callosum
  58. relays and filters information from the senses and transmits the information to the cerebral cortex. Its the old time phone operator plugging the things (cords) into right places to work.
    Thalamus
  59. regulates four factors of behavior: fighting, fleeing, feeding, and mating
    • Hypothalamus
    • (below thalamus)
  60. what do the brains convolutions (bumps) do?
    increase surface area of brain to store lots of info
  61. The master gland of the bodys hormone-producing system, which releases hormones that direct the functions of many other glands in the body
    pituitary gland
  62. critical for creation and storage of new memories

    NO
    hipppcampus
  63. which plays a central role in many emotional processes

    NO
    amygdala
  64. this system is another way to communicate
    Chemical system interacting with nervous system in order to balance and regulate body and functions
    endocrine system
  65. chemical substances transmitted/secreted in reaction to information intake (stimulated)
    hormones
  66. the science of heredity
    genetics
  67. ____ genetics is the study of the influence of genetics on behavior
    behavioral
  68. is the genetic code for you
    DNA
  69. two double helix structures, two spirals, mechanism by which life starts and is passed on from generation to generation

    NO
    DNA
  70. an individual unit of hereditary transmission which is built from DNA
    Gene
  71. Strands of DNA wound around each other in a double helix configuration
    chromosomes
  72. there are 8,388,608 possible combinations of the _______ pairs of chromosomes

    NO
    23
  73. There are innumerable possible combinations of ________

    NO
    genes
  74. says multiple genes (many genes work together to produce height)
    polygenic traits
  75. what is it called when genes come together from mom and dad and line up with their corresponding genes for certain traits
    Alleles
  76. What is the gene called that is expressed in the phenotype ____
    • Dominant gene
    • (dimples, brown eyes)
  77. what is the gene called that both mom and dad have to donate in order to be manifest in the phenotype _____
    • recessive
    • (freckles, blond hair)
  78. what you visually see (but don't see like if long life in your family, good heart in family etc...?
    Phenotype
  79. two genes come together create this DD, rr, Dr
    genotype
  80. ____ pair of chromosomes are the _____ chromosomes

    NO
    • 23
    • sex
  81. women have two ______ chromosomes
    x
  82. men have one _____ and one _____ chromosome
    • x
    • y
  83. you share 50% of your genes with each parent
    degree of relatedness
  84. share 100% of genes came from one fertilized egg (same genetic code)
    sperm + ovum=zygote
    monozygotic twins (identical twins)
  85. share 50% of genes come from two fertilized eggs (
    • Dizygotic twins (fraternal twins)
    • 2 sperm, 20 ovum, = 2 zygotes that plant in wall
  86. Why do psychologists like to study identical twins?
    determine the amount of a behavior, trait, or disorder that can be attributed to genes - usually done on twins that are raised in the same home so the impact of their environment remains reletively constant

    see the difference between genetics and environment
  87. the cortex is separated into ____ hemispheres
    2
  88. each hemisphere of the cortex is roughly symmetrical and controls many functions on the ______ side of the body
    opposite
  89. The right brain focuses on
    creative, abstract, intuitive types of things
  90. The left brain focuses on
    one and one equals two.  Concrete, logical, pragmatic types of things
  91. KNOW HOW TO DO PUNNET SQUARES
  92. _____ develops _____  half; work together; you hear it then you see it; e.g. crawling!
    visual, verbal

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