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What are the 8 glands of the Endocrine System?
- Parathyroid (4 glands)
- Location: On either side of the trachea, below the Thyroid Cartilage.
- Hormones: T3 (triiodothyronine), T4 (thyroxine), Calcitonin
- Actions: Increases metabolism, decreases blood calcium
- Location: Four, located on the dorsal of the Thyroid Gland.
- Hormone: PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)
- Action: Increases blood calcium
- Location: Two, on top of each kidney. The adrenal cortex and adrenal medulla.
- Adrenal Cortex (Corticosteroids): Cortisol, Aldosterone, Androgen/Estrogen.
- Actions: Increases blood glucose, increases sodium reabsorption; regulates blood pressure, sexual characteristics
- Adrenal Medulla (catecholamine hormones): Epinephrine, nonepinephrine
- Actions: Sympathomimetic
- Location: Behind the stomach
- Hormones: Islet cells, Insulin, Glucagon
- Actions: Lowers blood sugar, raises blood sugar
- Location: Two parts, pea-sized gland located at the base of the brain, Hypothalmus on top.
- Anterior Lobe (Adenohypophysis): Via capillaries, secretes hormones.
- Hormones: GH, STH, TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH, PRL
- Posterior Lobe (Neurohypophysis): Stores and releases hormones.
- Hormones: ADH, OT
- Location: Abdominal region of female.
- Hormones: Estrogen, Progesterone
- Actions: Development of sex characteristics, prepares/maintains uterus.
- Hormones: Testosterone
- Actions: Promotes development of sperm and sex characteristics
- Location: Central portion of the brain.
- Hormone: Melatonin
- Actions: Supports the body's "biological clock."