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Earths interior (chapter 1, section 1)
- Geologists- scientists who study the forces that make and shape the earth.
- Rock- the material that forms earths hard surface
- Geologists study the process that creates earths earths features and search for clues about its history.Geology- the study of planet earth.
- constructive forces- forces that change the surface by building mountains and landmases.
- destructive forces- forces that slowly destruct mountains and other landmases.
- continents- 7 great landmases surrounded by oceans.
- seismic waves- waves created by earthquakes.
- pressure- a force pushing on an area or surface.
- Three main layers that make up Earth's interior: the crust, the mantle, and the core. Each layer has its own conditions and materials.crust- its a layes of rock that forms the earth's outer skin
- basalt- dark, dense rock with a fine texture.
- granite- rock, has larger crystals than basalt and its not dense.
- mantle- below the crust, layer of hott rock.
- lithosphere- the mantle and the crust together.
- asthenosphere- soft layer in the mantle.
- outer core- layer of molten metal that surround the inner core.
- inner core- dense ball of solid metal (center of the earth)
Convection Currents and the mantle (chapter 1, section 2)
- heat transfer- the movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
- There are three types of heat transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection.radiation- transfer of energy through empty space.
- conduction- heat transfer by contanct of particles of matter.
- convection- heat transfer by involving movements of fluids, liquids and gases.
- density- measure of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance.
- The heating and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluid's density, and the force of gravity combined to set convection currents in motion.
Drifting Continets (section 3, chapter 1)
- Alfred Wegener made tha continental drift theory. Wegener's hypothesis was that all the continentss had once been joined together in a singel landmass and have since drifted apart.Pangea- subcontinent meaning "all lands".
- Continental Drift: Wegener's idea that continents slowly moved.
- fossil- trace of an acient organism that has been preserved in a rock. Wegener supported his theory with this.
- Unfortunatly, Wegener could not provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes of pulls the continents.
Sea floor spreading (section 4, chapter 1)
- mid ocean ridge- the longest chain of mountains in the world.
- sonar- a device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects and then records the echoes of theses sound waves.
- At the mid- ocean ridge, molten material then spreads out, pushing older rock to both sides of the ridge.sea- floor spreading- a process that adds new material to the ocean floor.
- deep- ocean trenches- underwater canyons.At deep- ocean trenches, subduction allows part of the ocean floor to sink beneath the mantle, over tens of millions of years.
- subduction- the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep- ocean trench and back into the mantle.
Theory of plate tectonics (chapter 1, section 5)
- plates- sections the lithosphere is divided into.
- scientific theory- a well- tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
- plate tectonics- a geological theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constan, slow motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
- The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth's plates.faults- breaks in earth's crut where rock has slipped past each other.
- transform boundary- a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions.
- divergent boundary- the place where two plates move apart.
- rift valley- deep valley.
- convergent boundary- a place where two plates come together.