Science Bimestral

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Science Bimestral
2010-06-15 20:34:41
Inside Earth Environmental science

Just for finals
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  1. Earths interior (chapter 1, section 1)
    • Geologists- scientists who study the forces that make and shape the earth.
    • Rock- the material that forms earths hard surface
    • Geologists study the process that creates earths earths features and search for clues about its history.
    • Geology- the study of planet earth.
    • constructive forces- forces that change the surface by building mountains and landmases.
    • destructive forces- forces that slowly destruct mountains and other landmases.
    • continents- 7 great landmases surrounded by oceans.
    • seismic waves- waves created by earthquakes.
    • pressure- a force pushing on an area or surface.
    • Three main layers that make up Earth's interior: the crust, the mantle, and the core. Each layer has its own conditions and materials.
    • crust- its a layes of rock that forms the earth's outer skin
    • basalt- dark, dense rock with a fine texture.
    • granite- rock, has larger crystals than basalt and its not dense.
    • mantle- below the crust, layer of hott rock.
    • lithosphere- the mantle and the crust together.
    • asthenosphere- soft layer in the mantle.
    • outer core- layer of molten metal that surround the inner core.
    • inner core- dense ball of solid metal (center of the earth)
  2. Convection Currents and the mantle (chapter 1, section 2)
    • heat transfer- the movement of energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.
    • There are three types of heat transfer: radiation, conduction, and convection.
    • radiation- transfer of energy through empty space.
    • conduction- heat transfer by contanct of particles of matter.
    • convection- heat transfer by involving movements of fluids, liquids and gases.
    • density- measure of how much mass there is in a volume of a substance.
    • The heating and cooling of the fluid, changes in the fluid's density, and the force of gravity combined to set convection currents in motion.
  3. Drifting Continets (section 3, chapter 1)
    • Alfred Wegener made tha continental drift theory. Wegener's hypothesis was that all the continentss had once been joined together in a singel landmass and have since drifted apart.
    • Pangea- subcontinent meaning "all lands".
    • Continental Drift: Wegener's idea that continents slowly moved.
    • fossil- trace of an acient organism that has been preserved in a rock. Wegener supported his theory with this.
    • Unfortunatly, Wegener could not provide a satisfactory explanation for the force that pushes of pulls the continents.
  4. Sea floor spreading (section 4, chapter 1)
    • mid ocean ridge- the longest chain of mountains in the world.
    • sonar- a device that bounces sound waves off underwater objects and then records the echoes of theses sound waves.
    • At the mid- ocean ridge, molten material then spreads out, pushing older rock to both sides of the ridge.
    • sea- floor spreading- a process that adds new material to the ocean floor.
    • deep- ocean trenches- underwater canyons.
    • subduction- the process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep- ocean trench and back into the mantle.
    • At deep- ocean trenches, subduction allows part of the ocean floor to sink beneath the mantle, over tens of millions of years.
  5. Theory of plate tectonics (chapter 1, section 5)
    • plates- sections the lithosphere is divided into.
    • scientific theory- a well- tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
    • plate tectonics- a geological theory that states that pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constan, slow motion, driven by convection currents in the mantle.
    • The theory of plate tectonics explains the formation, movement, and subduction of Earth's plates.
    • faults- breaks in earth's crut where rock has slipped past each other.
    • transform boundary- a place where two plates slip past each other, moving in opposite directions.
    • divergent boundary- the place where two plates move apart.
    • rift valley- deep valley.
    • convergent boundary- a place where two plates come together.