Spinal Anatomy

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Author:
ecav
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23720
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Spinal Anatomy
Updated:
2010-06-16 12:17:36
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Spinal Anatomy
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Description:
National Board Part One Spinal Anatomy
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  1. Germinal Layers

    Endoderm
    Epithelium of Respiratory Tract, GI, Gut

    Lines the Gut and Respiratory Tract
  2. Germinal Layers

    Mesoderm
    Muscles of trunk, Genitourinary Serous Membrane, Cardiovascular System, Adrenal Cortex

    All the Rest
  3. Germinal Layers

    Ectoderm
    Epidermis, Hair, Retina, Anterior Pituitary, CNS, PNS, Adrenal Medulla

    Nerves and Skin
  4. Embryological Development / Nervous System

    Neural Tube
    • Brain
    • Spinal Cord
    • Ventricles
    • Retina
    • Posterior Pituitary
  5. Embryological Development / Nervous System

    Neural Crest
    • Cranial Nerve Ganglia
    • Melanocytes
    • Schwann Cells
    • Meissner's and Auerbach's Plexuses
    • Adrenal Medulla
    • Afferent Neurons of the dorsal Root Ganglia
    • Postganglionics of the ANS
  6. Primary Vesicles

    Prosencephalon (forebrain):
    • Telencephalon (CN 1):
    • Cerebrum, Lateral Ventricles, Septum Pellucidum, Caudate and Lenticular Nuclei

    • Diencephalon (CN 2):
    • Thalamus, Epithalamus, Hypothalamus, Infundibulum, Optic Chiasm, 3rd Ventricle, Mammillary bodies
  7. Primary Vesicles

    Mesencephalon (midbrain):
    • Mesencephalon (CN 3 and 4):
    • Midbrain, Cerebral Peduncles, Aqueduct of Sylvius
  8. Primary Vesicles

    Rhombencephalon (hindbrain):
    • Metencephalon (CN 5 thru 8):
    • Pons and Cerebellum

    • Myelencephalon (CN 9 thru 12):
    • Medulla Oblongata, 4th Ventricle
  9. Specialized Cells of the Nervous System

    Astrocyte:
    Support cell in the blood brain barrier (glucose)
  10. Specialized Cells of the Nervous System

    Microglia
    Gram mesenchyme, Macrophages (CNS clean up)
  11. Specialized Cells of the Nervous System

    Ependymal
    Lines ventricles and makes CNF (Ectoderm)
  12. Specialized Cells of the Nervous System

    Oligodendrocytes
    Makes myelin in CNS
  13. Specialized Cells of the Nervous System

    Schwann Cells
    Make myelin in the PNS
  14. Sympathetic NS
    • T1 to L2
    • Fight or Flight (Visceral Motor, Autonomic, Not Thinking)
    • Vasoconstriction/ Central aorta
    • Vasodilation/ Arterioles of muscles and Capillaries of the skin
    • Erector Pilli
    • Sweat Glands
  15. Sympathetic NS Pathway
    • IML (Intermedial Lateral Cell Nucleus in the Spinal Cord)
    • Leave the cord via white (myelinated) rami communicantes (preganglionic type B fibers)
    • Synapse on STG (Sympathetic Chain Ganglion)
    • Leave STG via grey (unmyelinated) rami communicantes (postganglinoic type C fibers)
    • NE and EPI ( Norepinephrine and Epinephrine)

    Note: One fiber does not synapse (white fiber) to the Adrenal Medulla = postganglionic fiber. Pheochromocytoma = a gray color cell tumor which causes Hypertension (HTN) - excess EPI.
  16. Cervical Chain Ganglion- out T1
    • Superior Sympathetic Chain Ganglion = above C4 pupil dilation (Horner's Syndrome) [ptosis, meiosis, anhydrosis]
    • Middle Sympathetic Chain Ganglion = C4-C5
    • Inferior Sympathetic Chain Ganglion = C6-C8
    • Stellate Ganglion = C8-T1 (Merger between Inferior Sympathetic Chain Ganglion and Upper Thoracic Ganglion)
  17. Parasympathetic NS
  18. Brain

    Cerebrum
    Intellect and Association

    • Frontal Lobe: Motor
    • Parietal Lobe: Sensory
    • Occipital Lobe: Sight
    • Temporal Lobe: Hearing
  19. Brain

    Thalamus
    Relay Station, Sensory fibers
  20. Brain

    Hypothalamus
    Hunger, Thirst, Temperature Regulation, Sex, Rage, Fear
  21. Brain

    Cerebellum
    Balance and Equilibrium, Involuntary Coordination
  22. Brain

    Medulla and Pons
    Vasomotor, Cardiac Center, Autonomic NS
  23. Basal Ganglia
    • A collection of cell bodies that lie within the white matter of the cerebrum.
    • These plan and coordinate voluntary movement.
    • Striatum = Putaman = large, dark, lateral = Lentiform
    • Striatum = Globus Pallidus = small, pale, medial = Lentiform
    • Striatum = Caudate Nucleus
    • Amygdala
  24. Fibers of the Cerebrum

    Association
    connect regions of the same hemisphere. Wernkes to limbic
  25. Fibers of the Cerebrum

    Commississural
    carry impulse across the corpus callosum. Left to Right
  26. Fibers of the Cerebrum

    Projection
    send impulses from below to the cortex. Brain stem to cortex

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