sociology test 1

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sociology test 1
2013-09-26 15:58:31
chapt 2345

chapter terminology
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  1. Understanding human behavior by placing it whitin its broader social context?
    Sociological Perspective
  2. People who share a culture and a territory?
  3. The group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society
    Social location
  4. The application of systematic methods to obtain knoledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods
  5. the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to comprehend, explain, and predict events in our natural environments
    natural sciences
  6. the intellectual and academic disciplines designed to understand the social world objectively by means of controlled and repeated observations
    social sciences
  7. a statement that goes beyond the individual case and is applied to a broader group or situation
  8. those things that everyone knows are true
    common sense
  9. the use of objective systematic observation to test theories
    scientific method
  10. the application of the scientific approach to the social world
  11. Comte proposed to apply the scientific method to the social world in a process called???
  12. Herbert spencer believed that societies go through a ______ evolution. They evolve from a lower ______ stage, to a higher _____ stage. ALso known as the founder of sociology!
    • natural
    • barbarian
    • civilized
  13. Karl Marx thought that human misery lay in ______ conflict
  14. Marx's term for the struggle between capitalist and workers
    Class conflict
  15. Marxs term for capitalist those who own the means of production
  16. Marx's term for the exploited class, the mass of workers who do not own the means of production
  17. This refers to the evolution of species (Spencer)
    Social Darwinism
  18. Emile Durkheim believed that social forces affected peoples _______
  19. the degree to which members of a group or a society feel united by shared values and other social bonds also known as social cohesion
    social integration
  20. recurring characteristics or events
    patterns of behavior
  21. Max Weber thought this power house of an organization was the sole influence on social change?
  22. the view that a sociologist personal values or beliefs should not influence social research
    value free
  23. the standards by which people define what is desirable or undesirable, good or bad, beautiful or ugly
  24. value neutrality in research
  25. the reptition of a study in order to test its findings
  26. the use of sociology to solve problems from the micro level of classroom interaction and family relationships to the macro level of crim and pollution
    applied sociology
  27. a general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work, an explanation of how two or more facts are related to one another
  28. a theoretical perspective in which society is viewed as composed of symbols that people use to establish meaning and communicate with one another
    symbolic interaction ism

    Ex. Meaning of marriage
  29. An examination of large scale patterns of society
    macro level analysis
  30. an examination of small scale patterns of society such as how the members of a group interact
    micro level analysis
  31. what people do in the presence of another
    social interaction
  32. the language, beliefs, values, norms and even material objects that characterize a group and are passed from one generation to the next
  33. the disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their taken for granted assumptions about life
    culture shock
  34. the use of ones own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other societies leading to negative evaluation.
  35. not judging a culture but trying to understand it on its own terms
    cultural relativism
  36. edward sapir and benjamin wharfs hypothesis that language creates ways of thinking and perceiving
    Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
  37. expectations of what is "right"
  38. either expressions of approval or disapproval
  39. norms that are not strictly enforced
  40. norms that are strictly enforced
  41. the values and related behaciors of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture
  42. a group whose balues beliefs norms place its members in opposition to the broader culture
    counter culture
  43. ogburns term for human behavior lagging behind technological innovations
    cultural lag
  44. the spread of cultural traits from one group to another
    cultural diffusion
  45. the entire human environment, including interaction with others
    social enviro
  46. term coined by Charles Horton Cooley to refer to the process by which our self develops through internalizing other reaction so us
    looking glass self
  47. Mead a symbolic interactionalist believed that when we play with others we learn to take the _____ of the other

    • Roles
    • FireFighter
  48. Frued was mr. Subconcious

    The Id, ego and superego
  49. learning societies gender map the paths in life set for us because we are male or femal
    gender socialization
  50. group of individuals often roughly the same age who are linked by common interest and orientations
    peer group
  51. people or groups that affect our slefconcept attitueds behavior or other orientations toward life
    agents of socialization
  52. the process of learning in advance an anticipated future role or status
    anticipatory socialization
  53. the stages of our life as we go from birth to death
    life course
  54. a factor which can vary from one case to another. Think Scientific method
  55. The way in which a researcher measure a variable
    Operational Definition
  56. 1 of 7 methods that sociologies use to collect data
    research methods
  57. the extent to which an operation definition measures what it is intended to measure
  58. extent to which research produces consistent or dependable results
  59. effects of interviewers on respondents that lead to biased answers. The answer is in the definition!!
    interviewer bias
  60. Questions that respondents answer in their own words
    open ended
  61. research in which the researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening in that setting
    participant observation
  62. the use of control and experimental groups and dependent and independent variables to test causation
  63. the group of subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable
    experimental group
  64. the subjects in an experiment who are not exposed to the independent variable
    control group
  65. a factor that causes a change in another variable aka the dependent variable
    independent variable
  66. a factor that is changed in experiment
    dependent variable
  67. the analysis of data that have been collected by other researchers
    secondary analysis
  68. Meads "I" is the self as subject meaning...
    this is the active, creative part of the self
  69. Meads "ME", is the self as object meaning...
    • attitudes we internalize from our interactions with others...
    • Ex. He pushed ME
  70. Goffman's Dramaturgical Model is used to explain how we have different roles in life depending on our place in life... so as a student we_______ and as a son we do_______ and so on.
    • study
    • dishes after dinner
  71. Places where people give performances
    front stage behavior
  72. places where people rest from their perfmorances and plan future performances.
    back stage behavior
  73. peoples efforts to control the impressions that others recieve of them.
    Impression management
  74. techniques used to salvage a performance
    face-saving behavior