Chapter 3: Atoms and Elements

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Shira
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237255
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Chapter 3: Atoms and Elements
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2013-09-26 19:19:42
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Survey Chemistry
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Terms and rules applying to the elements of the periodic table
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  1. What is an element?
    • Pure substances that cannot be separated into simpler substances
    • Building blocks of matter
  2. What is a symbol?
    • Represents the name of an element
    • Consists of 1 or 2 letters
    • Starts with capital letter
  3. What are properties of metals?
    • Shiny and ductile
    • Good conductors of heat and electricity
  4. What are properties of nonmetals?
    • Dull
    • Brittle
    • Poor conductors
    • Good insulators
  5. What are properties of metalloids?
    • Better conductors than nonmetals, not as good as metals
    • Used as semiconductors
  6. What is Group 1A referred to as on the periodic table?
    Alkali Metals
  7. What is Group 2A referred to as on the periodic table?
    Alkaline Earth Metals
  8. What is Group 7A referred to as on the periodic table?
    Halogens
  9. What is Group 8A referred to as on the periodic table?
    Noble Gases
  10. What represents the number of particles in the nucleus and is equal to the number of protons AND neutrons?
    Mass Number
  11. The atomic number equals the number of ____.
    Protons and electrons
  12. The mass number minus the number of protons gives you the number of ____.
    Neutrons
  13. Complete the following for Nickel               

    Symbol       
    Atomic Number 
    Mass Number        
    Number of protons       
    Number of neutrons        
    Number of electrons
    • Ni
    • 28
    • 59
    • 28
    • 31
    • 28
  14. Complete the following for Barium               

    Symbol       
    Atomic Number 
    Mass Number        
    Number of protons       
    Number of neutrons       
    Number of electrons
    • Ba
    • 56
    • 137
    • 56
    • 81
    • 56
  15. True or False:
    Isotopes have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
    True
  16. What is the atomic mass of an element?
    Average mass of all atoms of an element as they occur in nature.
  17. What is calculated with this formula: mass isotope (1) x (%/100)+mass isotope (2) x (%/100)+...?
    Atomic Mass
  18. White light that passes through a prism is separated into all colors called a ____.
    Continuous Spectrum
  19. What absorbs energy to move up to a higher energy level and emits energy to move down to a lower energy level?
    Electrons
  20. What provides information about the distance of the electrons from the nucleus?
    Principle Energy Level (n)
  21. What are the four sublevels?
    • s
    • p
    • d
    • f
  22. The maximum number of electrons the s sublevel can hold is ____.
    2
  23. The maximum number of electrons the p sublevel can hold is ____.
    6
  24. The maximum number of electrons the d sublevel can hold is ____.
    10
  25. The maximum number of electrons the f sublevel can hold is ____.
    14
  26. Indicate the shape of the s sublevel.
    Sphere
  27. Indicate the shape of the p sublevel.
    Dumbbell
  28. What is the maximum number of electrons in n=1?
    2
  29. What is the maximum number of electrons in n=2?
    8
  30. What is the maximum number of electrons in n=3?
    18
  31. What is the maximum number of electrons in n=4?
    32
  32. The number of p orbitals in the 2p sublevel is ____.
    3
  33. The number of d orbitals in the n=4 energy level is ____.
    5
  34. True of false:
    The innermost electrons (closer to the nucleus) are known as valence electrons.
    False (outermost)
  35. True or False:
    The group number indicates the number of valence electrons.
    True
  36. State the number of valence electrons for O.
    6
  37. State the number of valence electrons for Al.
    3
  38. State the number of valence electrons for Ca.
    2
  39. State the number of valence electrons for He.
    8
  40. State the number of valence electrons for 1s22s22p63s2.
    2
  41. State the number of valence electrons for 1s22s22p5.
    7
  42. State the number of valence electrons for 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d4.
    2
  43. True or False:
    Atomic size (atomic radiusdecreases as you go down a group on the periodic table.
    False, it increases and decreases as you go down a period.
  44. Which has a larger atomic radius: Li or K?
    K
  45. Which has a larger atomic radius: P or Cl?
    P
  46. Which has a larger atomic radius: Cl or Rb?
    Rb
  47. What is a positive ion?
    An ion that loses electrons to become smaller in size.
  48. What is a negative ion?
    An ion that gains electrons to become bigger in size.
  49. Which has a larger atomic radius: K or K+?
    K
  50. Which has a larger atomic radius: S2- or S?
    S2-
  51. Which has a smaller atomic radius: Cl-or Cl?
    Cl
  52. Which has a smaller atomic radius: N or N3-?
    N
  53. The amount of energy required to remove an electron in the gaseous state is known as _____.
    Ionization Energy
  54. True or False:
    Ionization Energy increases as you up a group on the periodic table.
    True
  55. Why is that the closer the electrons are to the nucleus, the harder it is to remove?
    Because of the protons pulling on the electrons
  56. Select the element with the higher ionization energy: Li or K.
    Li
  57. Select the element with the higher ionization energy: Cl or P.
    Cl

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