Biology 3 Microbiology
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Virus in lysogenic cycle. no symptoms may be present in host. AKA provirus or prophage in bacteria
Archaea vs Bacteria
Archaea a mix between bacteria and eukaryotes. Typically live in extreme enviornments
Three things all organisms require to grow.
- 1: Carbon Source
- 2: Energry Source
- 3: Electrons (typically in the form of hydrogen)
inorganic or organic
- 1: Light/photons
- 2: oxidation of organic or inorganic matter
Can be organic (sugar) or inorganic (N2--> ammonia)
DNA/RNA/Protein complex in prokaryotes
Hypertonic vs Isotonic vs Hypotonic
- Hypertonic: inside has more particles than outside
- Iso: equal in and out
- Hypo: Inside has less than out.
Always compares inside to surrounding
Basics of Fungi
- 1: Eukaryotic Heteroptrophs - food intake absorption not ingestion - Saprophytic (live off dead organic matter)
- 2: live mostly in haploid state
- 3: reproduce sexually or asexually
Define: Septa, Chitin, Hyphae, Mycelium
- Septa: Cell wall found in most fungi
- Chitin: polysaccharide which composes septa
- Hyphae: multiply branched thread-like structures which are the living units of fungus
- Mycelium: large tangles mass of hyphae
Describe Fungus asexual reproductive life cycle
- Alternate between haploid and diploid like most organisms, but haploid stage is predominant.
- Hyphae are haploid.
- If hyphae form reproductive structures termed sporangiophores, haploid spores are released which can form new mycelia in asexual reproduction.
- Some fungus such as yeast undergo budding or cell fission
describe Fungus sexual reproductive life cycle.
- two hyphea from two mycelia with different mating types (+/-) touch to form a conjugation bridge.
- The tip of each hyphae forms a septum and cells in the area become gametes.
- The gamete nuclei fuse and produce a diploid zygote which seperates from the parent.
- Zygote fate: dormacy, until proper environmental conditions occur and the zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid cells which grow.
Which is more common for fungus reproduction. Asexual or sexual? what dictates what happens?
- Asexual is more common during good conditions,
- Sexual reproduction occurs during bad conditions because bad conditions for the parent may not be bad for a genetically different offspring.
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