Biology 3 Microbiology

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  1. Define: Temperate
    Virus in lysogenic cycle. no symptoms may be present in host. AKA provirus or prophage in bacteria
  2. Archaea vs Bacteria
    Archaea a mix between bacteria and eukaryotes.  Typically live in extreme enviornments
  3. Three things all organisms require to grow.
    • 1: Carbon Source
    • 2: Energry Source
    • 3: Electrons (typically in the form of hydrogen)
  4. Carbon sources
    inorganic or organic
  5. Energy Sources
    • 1: Light/photons
    • 2: oxidation of organic or inorganic matter
  6. Electron sources
    Can be organic (sugar) or inorganic (N2--> ammonia)
  7. Define: nucleoid
    DNA/RNA/Protein complex in prokaryotes
  8. Hypertonic vs Isotonic vs Hypotonic
    • Hypertonic: inside has more particles than outside
    • Iso: equal in and out
    • Hypo: Inside has less than out.

    Always compares inside to surrounding
  9. Basics of Fungi
    • 1: Eukaryotic Heteroptrophs - food intake absorption not ingestion - Saprophytic (live off dead organic matter)
    • 2: live mostly in haploid state
    • 3: reproduce sexually or asexually
  10. Define: Septa, Chitin, Hyphae, Mycelium
    • Septa: Cell wall found in most fungi
    • Chitin: polysaccharide which composes septa
    • Hyphae: multiply branched thread-like structures which are the living units of fungus
    • Mycelium: large tangles mass of hyphae
  11. Describe Fungus asexual reproductive life cycle
    • Alternate between haploid and diploid like most organisms, but haploid stage is predominant.  
    • Hyphae are haploid.  
    • If hyphae form reproductive structures termed sporangiophores, haploid spores are released which can form new mycelia in asexual reproduction.
    • Some fungus such as yeast undergo budding or cell fission
  12. describe Fungus sexual reproductive life cycle.
    • two hyphea from two mycelia with different mating types (+/-) touch to form a conjugation bridge. 
    • The tip of each hyphae forms a septum and cells in the area become gametes.
    • The gamete nuclei fuse and produce a diploid zygote which seperates from the parent.  
    • Zygote fate: dormacy, until proper environmental conditions occur and the zygote undergoes meiosis to form haploid cells which grow.
  13. Which is more common for fungus reproduction.  Asexual or sexual? what dictates what happens?
    • Asexual is more common during good conditions,
    • Sexual reproduction occurs during bad conditions because bad conditions for the parent may not be bad for a genetically different offspring.
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Biology 3 Microbiology
2013-09-26 21:54:29
Biology Microbiology

Biology 3 Microbiology
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