Psychology: Chapter 2

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Psychology: Chapter 2
2013-09-28 14:50:20
Research Methods

Research Methods
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  1. scientific method
    theory-hypothesis-empirical research= theory is supported, discarded or revised and revisited
  2. What are the 5 types of research methods?
    Archival Studies, Case Studies, Correlational Studies, Descriptive Studies, experiments
  3. archival studies
    examining records of past events
  4. correlational studies
    • statistical measure of extent to which two variables are related
    • correlation is NOT causation
  5. descriptive studies
    observation of behavior as it occurs naturally in the real world
  6. institutional review boards
    ensure institutions are up to ethical standards
  7. what 4 things make an experiment ethical?
    • Institutional review board approval
    • informed consent (can be withdrawn at any time)
    • no deception (unless participants debriefed after)
    • confidentiality
  8. response performance
    researchers quantify perceptual/cognitive processes in response to specific stimulus
  9. inferential vs. descriptive statitics
    • descriptive: describe data sets
    • inferential: determine if sample data applies to entire population
  10. central tendency
    • what descriptive statistics are measure of. describes typical response/ behavior of group as whole
    • ex. mean, median, mode
  11. confound
    anything that affects dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between study's different experimental conditions
  12. directionality problem
    direction of cause/effect relationship between variables is unknown (correlational studies)
  13. 5 methods of measuring Body/Brain Activity
    • Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
    • Transcranial Magnetic Simulation (TMS)
  14. Electroencephalograph (EEG)
    • measures brain activity
    • reflects ALL brain activity
  15. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
    computer aided reconstruction of brain's metabolic activity

    downside: inject  small amount of radioactive substance
  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    produces high resolution image of brain by use of magnetic fields
  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
    • measures brains blood flow by assessing changes in brain's oxygen level
    • shows brain's response to stimulus
  18. Transcranial Magnetic Simulation (TMS)
    momentarily disrupts brain activity to see which parts of brain are important for which tasks
  19. external validity
    degree to which findings in experiment can be generalized outside laboratory
  20. internal validity
    extent to which data collected in study addresses what was intended to be studied
  21. reliability
    stability and consistency over time in similar conditions
  22. meta-analysis
    study of studies that have already been conducted
  23. variability
    how widely dispersed about the mean values are
  24. Event Related Potential (ERP)
    Observes how neuron firing changes in result to specific stimuli
  25. Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
    thin x ray beam rotates around an area of body to produce 3D images
  26. experience sampling
    researchers take several samples of participant's experiences over time