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Three basic types of hormones and where the hormone binds a cell
- 1: Peptide - surface to activate 2nd messenger
- 2: Steroid - diffuse through membran. act in nucleus
- 3: Tyrosine derivative - split... thyroid diffuse to nucleus, catecholamines have membrane bound receptors
How to remember which hormones are steroids, peptides, or tyrosine derivatives
- 1: The adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta make STEROIDS
- 2: Tyrosines: are from the thyroid and adrenal medula which are termed catecholamines
- 3: Peptides are most others.
Steroid hormones I must know! + What stuctures they are associated with
Adrenal Cortex: glucocorticoids, mineral coticoids which are cortisol and aldosterone
Gonads: Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
Tyrosine Derivatives hormones I must know! + What stuctures they are associated with
- Thyroid homones: T3 and T4
- Adrenal Medulla: Catecholamines - Epinephrine, norepinephrin
Anterior Pituitary Hormones and function
Posterior Pituitary Hormones and function
Adrenal Cortex Hormones and function
Adrenal Medulla Hormones and function
Thyroid Hormones and function
Parathyroid Hormones and function
Pancrease Hormones and function
Ovaries Hormones and function
Testes Hormones and function
Placenta Hormones and function
region of sperm production and associated hormones and function
- Seminiferous tubules
- FSH: stimulates "caretake cells" for spermatacytes
- LH: stimulates testosterone release
Seminal fluid is composed of fluid from which structures?
Seminal Vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands/Cowper's glands
- Zona pellucida = viscous fluid
Describe hormone regulation of menstrual cycle
- 1: In the presence of FSH in the blood, LH stimulates estradiol (type of estrogen) release which prepares uterine wall for pregnancy.
- 2: Estradiol inhibits LH secretion, but just before ovulation, estradiol levels rise drastically which causes large LH increase termed Luteal Surge.
- 3: Luteal surge causes follicle to burst
Fertilization and Embryology
- 1: Fertilization - occurs in fallopian tube
- 2: Cleavage - occurs while zygote is in fallopian tube, mitosis occurs. Once 8 or more cells exist, the zygote is called a morulla. All cells are totipotent
- 3: division continues and forms a hollow ball filled with fluid called the Blastocyst
- 4: Implantation of blastocyst in uterine wall occurs 5-7 days
- 5: implantation causes HCG to be released to prevent corpus luteum degeneration and to maintain estrogen and progesterone levels (HCG in blood = first sign of pregnancy)
- 6: PLacenta forms.
- 7: gastrula forms and gastrulation occurs during 2nd week.
- 8: primary germ layers form.
- 9: 3rd week, gastrula forms neurula in a process called neurulation. This is when the notochord forms.
What tissues do the three germ layers form?
- Endoderm: lining of digestive tract, liver, pancrease
- MEsoderm: tissue between inner and outer layers. muscle, bone, ...
- Ectoderm: outer covering of body. nails, skin, tooth enamel, and most of nervous system and sensory organs