Biology 5 Endocrine System

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p.reilly1227
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237273
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Biology 5 Endocrine System
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2013-09-26 19:07:02
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Biology Endocrine System
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Biology 5 Endocrine System
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  1. Three basic types of hormones and where the hormone binds a cell
    • 1: Peptide - surface to activate 2nd messenger
    • 2: Steroid - diffuse through membran. act in nucleus
    • 3: Tyrosine derivative - split... thyroid diffuse to nucleus, catecholamines have membrane bound receptors
  2. How to remember which hormones are steroids, peptides, or tyrosine derivatives
    • 1: The adrenal cortex, gonads, and placenta make STEROIDS
    • 2: Tyrosines: are from the thyroid and adrenal medula which are termed catecholamines 
    • 3: Peptides are most others.
  3. Steroid hormones I must know! + What stuctures they are associated with
    Adrenal Cortex: glucocorticoids, mineral coticoids which are cortisol and aldosterone

    Gonads: Estrogen, progesterone, testosterone
  4. Tyrosine Derivatives hormones I must know! + What stuctures they are associated with
    • Thyroid homones: T3 and T4 
    • Adrenal Medulla: Catecholamines - Epinephrine, norepinephrin
  5. Anterior Pituitary Hormones and function
  6. Posterior Pituitary Hormones and function
  7. Adrenal Cortex Hormones and function
  8. Adrenal Medulla Hormones and function
  9. Thyroid Hormones and function
  10. Parathyroid Hormones and function
  11. Pancrease Hormones and function
  12. Ovaries Hormones and function
  13. Testes Hormones and function
  14. Placenta Hormones and function
  15. region of sperm production and associated hormones and function
    • Seminiferous tubules
    • FSH: stimulates "caretake cells" for spermatacytes
    • LH: stimulates testosterone release
  16. Define: Androgen
    sex hormone
  17. Seminal fluid is composed of fluid from which structures?
    Seminal Vesicles, prostate, bulbourethral glands/Cowper's glands
  18. Describe oogenesis
    • Zona pellucida = viscous fluid
  19. Describe hormone regulation of menstrual cycle
    • 1: In the presence of FSH in the blood, LH stimulates estradiol (type of estrogen) release which prepares uterine wall for pregnancy.
    • 2: Estradiol inhibits LH secretion, but just before ovulation, estradiol levels rise drastically which causes large LH increase termed Luteal Surge.
    • 3: Luteal surge causes follicle to burst
  20. Fertilization and Embryology
    • 1: Fertilization - occurs in fallopian tube
    • 2: Cleavage - occurs while zygote is in fallopian tube, mitosis occurs.  Once 8 or more cells exist, the zygote is called a morulla. All cells are totipotent
    • 3: division continues and forms a hollow ball filled with fluid called the Blastocyst
    • 4: Implantation of blastocyst in uterine wall occurs 5-7 days
    • 5: implantation causes HCG to be released to prevent corpus luteum degeneration and to maintain estrogen and progesterone levels (HCG in blood = first sign of pregnancy)
    • 6: PLacenta forms.
    • 7: gastrula forms and gastrulation occurs during 2nd week.
    • 8: primary germ layers form.
    • 9: 3rd week, gastrula forms neurula in a process called neurulation.  This is when the notochord forms.

  21. What tissues do the three germ layers form?
    • Endoderm: lining of digestive tract, liver, pancrease
    • MEsoderm: tissue between inner and outer layers. muscle, bone, ...
    • Ectoderm: outer covering of body. nails, skin, tooth enamel, and most of nervous system and sensory organs

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