Biology 106 Exam 2 Vocabulary Study Guide

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  1. glucose
    most common energy source used by cells
  2. glycolysis
    oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid
  3. transition (intermediate) reaction
    pyruvic acid oxidized to acetyl CoA (Production of some NADH)
  4. the Krebs Cycle
    oxidation of acetyl CoA to CO2, step-by-step release of the potential energy stored in acetyl CoA
  5. electron transport system (ETS)/chemiosmosis
    NADH and FADH2 are oxidized (Production of large amounts of ATP), sequence of electron carrier proteins that are capable of oxidation and reduction
  6. respiration
    flow of electrons from energy-rich molecules to energy CO2 and H2O
  7. Net products of Glycolysis per 1 glucose
    2 ATP, 2 NADH, 2 pyruvic acid, doesn't need O2
  8. Net products of Transition Reaction per 1 glucose
    2 NADH, 2 Acetyl CoA, doesn't need O2
  9. Net products of Krebs Cycle per 1 glucose
    2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, CO2, doesn't need O2
  10. 3 classes of carrier molecules
    flavoproteins, cytochromes, and ubiquinones
  11. Net products of chemiosmosis per 1 glucose
    ~34 ATP, H2O, NAD+, FAD+, Needs O2
  12. location of ETC proteins
    • Prokarytoic cells: in the plasma membrane
    • Eukaryotic cells: inner mitochondrial membrane
  13. chemiosmosis
    ~34 ATP, H2O, NAD+, FAD+, needs O2. a mechanism that uses a proton gradient across a cytoplasmic membrane to generate ATP, diffuse through ATP synthase through higher concentration to lower concentration
  14. fermentations
    processes that release energy from sugars or other organic molecules
  15. lipases
    extracellular enzymes that hydrolyze lipids to glycerol and fatty acids
  16. protease
    extracellular enzymes that breakdown proteins to amino acids that can enter the cell
  17. deamination
    removal of amino group, that is concentrated to NH4 and excreted from cells
  18. decarboxylation
    removal of carboxyl group
  19. dehydrogenation
    removal of an H atom
  20. carbohydrate catabolism
    extracellular enzymes that breakdown polysaccharides into di- and monosaccharides
  21. amphibolic pathways
    pathways that function in anabolism and catabolism
  22. obligate
    absolutely requires the nutrient/growth condition
  23. facultative
    can survive with or without the nutrient/growth condition
  24. physical requirement for growth
    temperature, pH, osmotic pressure
  25. chemical requirement for growth
    carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, trace elements, oxygen, organic growth factors.
  26. psychrophiles
    "cold-living" microbes that can grow at 0'C; found in oceans and polar regions
  27. mesophiles
    "moderate-loving" microbes that grow between 25'C and 40'C
  28. psychrotroph
    an organism that is capable of growth between about 0'C and 30'C
  29. thermophile
    "heat-loving" microbes that grow between 50'C - 60'C
  30. acidophile
    tolerant of acidic pHs; a bacterium that grows below pH 4
  31. halophile
    an organism that requires a high salt concentration for growth
  32. minimum growth temperature
    lowest temperature a species will grow at
  33. optimum growth temperature
    the temperature at which the species grows best
  34. maximum growth temperature
    highest temperature a species will grow at
  35. capnophile
    bacteria that grow better at high CO2 concentrations
  36. binary fission
    process by which bacteria reproduce
  37. generation time
    time required for a cell to divide (population to double)
  38. sterilization
    removal or destruction of all forms of microbes
  39. commercial sterilization
    enough heat to destroy spores of Clostridium botulinum
  40. disinfection
    directed at controlling harmful microbes
  41. antisepsis
    disinfection of living tissue
  42. degerming
    mostly mechanical removal of microbes in a limited area
  43. sanitation
    lower microbial counts to safe levels
  44. asepsis
    absence of significant contamination
  45. obligate intracellular parasite
    an organism that require living host cells in order to multiply
  46. bacteriophage
    virus that infects bacteria
  47. host range
    the range of host cells a virus can infect
  48. virion
    complete infectious viral particle
  49. capsid
    protein coat that protects the nucleic acid
  50. capsomere
    subunits of protein coat
  51. envelope
    an outer covering surrounding the capsid of some viruses
  52. lysogeny
    a state in which phage DNA is incorporated into the host cell without lysis
  53. prophage
    phage DNA inserted into the host cell's DNA
  54. specialized transduction
    the process of transferring a piece of cell DNA adjacent to a prophage to another cell
  55. constitutive genes
    means that their products are constantly produced at a fixed rate
  56. promoter
    region of DNA where RNA polymerase initiates transcription
  57. operator
    region of DNA, "stop" or "go" signal for transcription of structural genes
  58. Pinocytosis
    engulfment by cell into vesicle
  59. Fusion
    viral envelope that fuses with plasma membrane and releases into cell.
  60. repression
    inhibits gene expression and decreases synthesis of enzymes.
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Biology 106 Exam 2 Vocabulary Study Guide
2013-10-13 09:31:49
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Biology 106 Exam 2 Study Guide Vocabulary
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