Biology Review for Test 1
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What are structures 1, 3,4, 6, 7, called
- 1. head
- 3. DNA
- 4. Capsid
- 6. sheath
- 7. tail fiber
- influenza virus
- Tobacco Mosaic Virus
- T4 bacteriophage
lack membrane bound organelles
im uni and multicellular
have a true nucleus
membrane bound organelles
plant and animal cells
function of the following:
- 1. controls what goes in and out of the cell.
- 2. surrounds the plant cell and prevents it from exploding
- 3. provides energy
- 4. makes protein synthesis
- 5. packages proteins
- 6. contains fluids
- 7. holds DNA and works as brain of the cell
- 8. provides energy and makes food for plant cells
- 9.breaks down old unneeded parts of the cell
- 10. helps chromosomes move during cell division
- 11. makes parts needed to build a ribosome
1. subunits within a cell
2. pass through
3. wanting to be equal
4. same state/ things to maintain the same of the inside and outside
- 1. organelle
- 3. equilibrium
- 4. homeostasis
put these in order and give their definition:
- 1. organelle- subunits within a cell
- 2. cell- basic unit of structure
- 3. tissues- a group of similar cells that perform a specific job
- 4. organ- a group of tissues working together
- 5. organ system- a group of organs working together
why aren't viruses alive? (2 reasons)
- 1. can only reproduce by infecting a host cell
- 2. use machinery to infect cells and produce more viruses
what allows a virus to enter a host cell?
viruses how infect bacteria are called-
what are the 2 types of bacteriophage infections? and what do they do?
Lytic infections- a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself and causes the cell to burst
- Lysogenic Infections-- a virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell, and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell's DNA. ------ Does not destroy the cell
- BUT it can exit the bacterial chromosome causing it to change to a lytic cell and bursting the host cell at the end.
what are viruses that contain RNA (instead of DNA) called?
and questions about it:
1. how did it get its name?
2. what are these viruses responsible for?
- 1. they make a DNA copy their RNA but its copied backwards (CRNA)
- 2. some types of cancer
Viruses are parasites...... why?
depend upon another living organism for its existence, harming the organism in the process.
viruses are enclosed by a protein coat called ______. and in some cases a ________.
in a lysogenic cycle, when the Virus inserts its phage DNA in the chromosome, what is it referred to? and is it active or inactive?
what can swith a lysogenic stage into becoming Lytic?
radiation or chemical triggers
what are the spikes on the membranous outer envelope of animal viruses called?
do animal cells have DNA or RNA?
what are some examples both?
- DNA- hepatitis, chicken pox, and herpes infections
- RNA-common colds, mumps, AIDS and polio
herpes simplex 1 viruses are dormant until what activates it?
why do we recover fully from colds?
because our respiratory tract tissues replace damaged cells through mitosis.
which viruses attack nerve cells?
what's a disadvantage about nerve cells?
- they cant replace themselves; the damage done to them is permanent
once a virus is inside a plant cell, it can spread throughout the plant through ____________.
[aka:The cytoplasmic connections that penetrate the walls between adjacent plant cells.]
how are some ways plant viruses can spread?
Through insects, herbivores, humans, or farming tools
what od agricultural scientists focus on instead of preventing infections?
Breeding resistant varieties of plants
you cant get sick from a bacteriophage,
what is it that makes our bodies react to it?
the harmful chemicals spread in the process of reproduction of viruses.
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