Biology Review for Test 1

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Biology Review for Test 1
2013-09-26 23:40:37
Biology exam1

Biooooologyyyy muwhahahah
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  1. What are structures  1, 3,4, 6, 7,  called
    • 1. head
    • 3. DNA
    • 4. Capsid
    • 6. sheath
    • 7. tail fiber
  2. lytic cycle:
  3. Identify the following types of viruses:
    • Adenovirus
    • influenza virus
    • Tobacco Mosaic Virus
    • T4 bacteriophage
  4. im unicellular
    lack membrane bound organelles
  5. im uni and multicellular
    have a true nucleus
    membrane bound organelles
    plant and animal cells
  6. function of the following:
    cell membrane
    cell wall
    Golgi Apparatus
    • 1. controls what goes in and out of the cell.
    • 2. surrounds the plant cell and prevents it from exploding
    • 3. provides energy
    • 4. makes protein synthesis
    • 5. packages proteins
    • 6. contains fluids
    • 7. holds DNA and works as brain of the cell
    • 8. provides energy and makes food for plant cells
    • 9.breaks down old unneeded parts of the cell
    • 10. helps chromosomes move during cell division
    • 11. makes parts needed to build a ribosome
  7. 1. subunits within a cell
    2. pass through
    3. wanting to be equal
    4. same state/ things to maintain the same of the inside and outside
    • 1. organelle
    • 2.permiable
    • 3. equilibrium
    • 4. homeostasis
  8. put these in order and give their definition:
    organ system
    • 1. organelle- subunits within a cell
    • 2. cell- basic unit of structure
    • 3. tissues- a group of similar cells that perform a specific job
    • 4. organ- a group of tissues working together
    • 5. organ system- a group of organs working together
  9. why aren't viruses alive? (2 reasons)
    • 1. can only reproduce by infecting a host cell
    • 2. use machinery to infect cells and produce more viruses
  10. what allows a virus to enter a host cell?
    its capsid
  11. viruses how infect bacteria are called-
  12. what are the 2 types of bacteriophage infections? and what do they do?
    Lytic infections- a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself and causes the cell to burst

    • Lysogenic Infections-- a virus integrates its DNA into the DNA of the host cell, and the viral genetic information replicates along with the host cell's DNA. ------ Does not destroy the cell
    • BUT it can exit the bacterial chromosome causing it to change to a lytic cell and bursting the host cell at the end.
  13. what are viruses that contain RNA (instead of DNA) called?
    and questions about it:
    1. how did it get its name?
    2. what are these viruses responsible for?
    • retroviruses
    • 1. they make a DNA copy their RNA but its copied backwards (CRNA)
    • 2. some types of cancer
  14. Viruses are parasites...... why?
    depend upon another living organism for its existence, harming the organism in the process.
  15. viruses are enclosed by a protein coat called ______. and in some cases a ________.
    • capsid
    • membrane envelope
  16. in a lysogenic cycle,  when the Virus inserts its phage DNA in  the chromosome, what is it referred to? and is it active or inactive?
  17. what can swith a lysogenic stage into becoming Lytic?
    radiation or chemical triggers
  18. what are the spikes on the membranous outer envelope of animal viruses called?
  19. do animal cells have DNA or RNA?
    what are some examples both?

    • DNA- hepatitis, chicken pox, and herpes infections
    • RNA-common colds, mumps, AIDS and polio
  20. herpes simplex 1 viruses are dormant until what activates it?
    physical stress
  21. why do we recover fully from colds?
    because our respiratory tract tissues replace damaged cells through mitosis.
  22. which viruses attack nerve cells?
    what's a disadvantage about nerve cells?
    • polioviruses
    • they cant replace themselves; the damage done to them is permanent
  23. once a virus is inside a plant cell, it can spread throughout the plant through ____________.

    [aka:The cytoplasmic connections that penetrate the walls between adjacent plant cells.]

  24. how are some ways plant viruses can spread?
    Through insects, herbivores, humans, or farming tools
  25. what od agricultural scientists focus on instead of preventing infections?
    Breeding resistant varieties of plants
  26. you cant get sick from a bacteriophage,
    what is it that makes our bodies react to it?
    the harmful chemicals spread in the process of reproduction of viruses.