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What does Tetravalent mean?
Able to form four bonds.
What are the functional groups?
What is the name of the Hydroxyl functional group?
- Their specific names usually end in -ol
What is the name of the Carbonyl functional group?
When is a Carbonyl group a Ketone?
If the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
When is the Carbonyl group an Aldehyde?
If the Carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton.
What is the name of the Carboxyl functional group?
Carboxylic acid or organic acid
What is the name of the Amino functional group?
What is the name of the Sulfhydryl functional group?
What is the name of the Phosphate functional group?
What is the name of the Methyl functional group?
What is an example of an Hydroxyl functional group?
- H H
- I I
- I I
- H H
What is an example of a Carbonyl group?
- H H O
- I I //
- I I
- H H
What is an example of a Carboxyl group?
What is an example of an Amino acid?
- O H H
- \\ I /
- / I \
- HO H H
What is an example of the Sulfhydryl group?
- O OH
- \\ /
- / \
- H H
What is the make up of the phosphate group?
What is the make up of the Methyl group?
What are the functional properties of the Hydroxyl group?
- Its polar as a result of the elections spending more time neat the electronegative oxygen atom
- Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
What are the functional properties of the Carbonyl group?
- Its a ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomer with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal
- Ketone and aldehyde groups are also found in sugars, giving rise to two major groups of sugars: Ketoses (containing ketone groups) and aldoses (containing aldehyde groups)
What are the functional properties of the Carboxyl group?
- Acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar.
- Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called carboxylate ion.
- O O
- // //
- -C <> -C + H+
- \ \
- OH O-
What is a functional properties of the Amino Acid?
- Acts as a base; can pick up an H+from the surrounding solution (water, in living organisms)
- H H
- + / + I
- H + - N <> - N-H
- \ I
- H H
- Nonionized Ionized +
- Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1
What are the functional properties of the Phosphate group?
- Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part (2-when at the end of a molecule, as above; 1 - when located internally in a chain of phosphate).
- Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy.
What are the functional properties of the Methyl group?
- Addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes.
- Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.
What functional group forms Disulfide bonds?
What functional group acts as an acid?
The Carboxylic acid group
What functional group is highly polar and may act as a weak acid?
What functional group may be a structural isomer of a ketone?
What functional group acts as a base?
What functional group Contributes a negative charge?
Organic phosphate group
What is the complexity and variety of organic molecules due to?
The chemical versatility of carbon atoms.
What functional group is commonly used in cells to transfer energy from one organic molecule to another?
Hermann Kolbe's synthesis of an organic compound, acetic acid, from inorganic substances that had been prepared directly from pure elements was a significant milestone for what reason(s)?
It proved that organic compounds could be synthesized from inorganic compounds and disproved the concepts of vitalism
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
The majority of their bonds are non polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that ____?
Living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena
variations in the reactive properties of different organic molecules are most closely associated with _____?
The presence of absence of functional groups
Vitalism gave way to mechanism, the view that ____?
Physical and chemical laws govern living systems.
Explain cis-trans isomers
Cis-trans isomers differ in their spatial arrangement around inflexible double bonds
What element is present in all organic molecules?
What Functional group helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?