Bio Charpter 4 flash cards .txt

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Anonymous
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237298
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Bio Charpter 4 flash cards .txt
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2013-09-26 22:12:31
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Eli Bio
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Eli Bio exam 2
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  1. What does Tetravalent mean?
    Able to form four bonds.
  2. What are the functional groups?
    • Hydroxyl
    • Carbonyl
    • Carboxyl
    • Amino
    • Sulfhydryl
    • Phosphate
    • Methyl
  3. What is the name of the Hydroxyl functional group?
    • Alcohol
    • Their specific names usually end in -ol
  4. What is the name of the Carbonyl functional group?
    • Ketones
    • Aldehydes
  5. When is a Carbonyl group a Ketone?
    If the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
  6. When is the Carbonyl group an Aldehyde?
    If the Carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton.
  7. What is the name of the Carboxyl functional group?
    Carboxylic acid or organic acid
  8. What is the name of the Amino functional group?
    Amines
  9. What is the name of the Sulfhydryl functional group?
    Thiols
  10. What is the name of the Phosphate functional group?
    Organic phosphates
  11. What is the name of the Methyl functional group?
    Methylated compounds
  12. What is an example of an Hydroxyl functional group?
    • C2H6O
    • H H
    • I I
    • H-C-C-OH
    • I I
    • H H
  13. What is an example of a Carbonyl group?
    • H H O
    • I I //
    • H-C-C-C-H
    • I I
    • H H
  14. What is an example of a Carboxyl group?
    • H O
    • I //
    • H-C-C
    • I \\
    • H OH
  15. What is an example of an Amino acid?
    • O H H
    • \\ I /
    • C-C-N
    • / I \
    • HO H H
  16. What is an example of the Sulfhydryl group?
    • O OH
    • \\ /
    • C
    • I
    • H-C-CH2-SH
    • I
    • N
    • / \
    • H H
  17. What is the make up of the phosphate group?
    • O
    • II
    • --O--P--O-
    • II
    • O-
  18. What is the make up of the Methyl group?
    • H
    • I
    • -H-H
    • I
    • H
  19. What are the functional properties of the Hydroxyl group?
    • Its polar as a result of the elections spending more time neat the electronegative oxygen atom
    • Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
  20. What are the functional properties of the Carbonyl group?
    • Its a ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomer with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal
    • Ketone and aldehyde groups are also found in sugars, giving rise to two major groups of sugars: Ketoses (containing ketone groups) and aldoses (containing aldehyde groups)
  21. What are the functional properties of the Carboxyl group?
    • Acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar.
    • Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called carboxylate ion.
    • O O
    • // //
    • -C <> -C + H+
    • \ \
    • OH O-
  22. What is a functional properties of the Amino Acid?
    • Acts as a base; can pick up an H+from the surrounding solution (water, in living organisms)
    • H H
    • + / + I
    • H + - N <> - N-H
    • \ I
    • H H
    • Nonionized Ionized +
    • Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1
  23. What are the functional properties of the Phosphate group?
    • Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part (2-when at the end of a molecule, as above; 1 - when located internally in a chain of phosphate).
    • Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy.
  24. What are the functional properties of the Methyl group?
    • Addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes.
    • Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.
  25. What functional group forms Disulfide bonds?
    Thiol
  26. What functional group acts as an acid?
    The Carboxylic acid group
  27. What functional group is highly polar and may act as a weak acid?
    Alcohol
  28. What functional group may be a structural isomer of a ketone?
    Aldehyde
  29. What functional group acts as a base?
    Amine group
  30. What functional group Contributes a negative charge?
    Organic phosphate group
  31. What is the complexity and variety of organic molecules due to?
    The chemical versatility of carbon atoms.
  32. What functional group is commonly used in cells to transfer energy from one organic molecule to another?
    Phosphate group
  33. Hermann Kolbe's synthesis of an organic compound, acetic acid, from inorganic substances that had been prepared directly from pure elements was a significant milestone for what reason(s)?
    It proved that organic compounds could be synthesized from inorganic compounds and disproved the concepts of vitalism
  34. Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
    The majority of their bonds are non polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
  35. The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that ____?
    Living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena
  36. variations in the reactive properties of different organic molecules are most closely associated with _____?
    The presence of absence of functional groups
  37. Vitalism gave way to mechanism, the view that ____?
    Physical and chemical laws govern living systems.
  38. Explain cis-trans isomers
    Cis-trans isomers differ in their spatial arrangement around inflexible double bonds
  39. What element is present in all organic molecules?
    Carbon
  40. What Functional group helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?
    • -SH
    • Sulfhydryl group

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