Psychology: Chapter 3 part 2

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Psychology: Chapter 3 part 2
2013-09-28 22:53:18
Biology Behavior

Biology and Behavior
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  1. grey matter
    continuous cortical sheath, composed of cell bodies
  2. white matter
    composed of axon bundles
  3. What are the 4 brain lobes?
    frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal
  4. What is the function of the frontal lobe and what is included in it?
    • essential for planning and movement
    • prefrontal cortex (higher level cognitive functioning, personality)
  5. parietal lobes function and what does it include?
    • touch
    • includes somatosensory homunculus
  6. somatosensory homunculus
    • a distorted representation of human body covering primary somatosensory cortex
    • more cortical area devoted to more sensitive regions
  7. occipital lobes
    • devoted to vision
    • back of head
  8. temporal lobes function and what do they include?
    • hearing
    • amygdala & hippocampus
  9. equipotentiality
    all parts of brain equally important to completing a task
  10. Broca's area
    left frontal region of brain, controls language
  11. spinal cord functions
    • controls reflexes
    • carries sensory info to brain, motor signals from brain
  12. brain stem functions
    • controls heart rate, breathing, swallowing
    • affects general alertness
  13. cerebellum functions
    • motor function & motor learning & memory
    • empathy
  14. hypathalamus
    • master regulatory structure
    • involved in motivated behaviors
  15. thalamus
    receives sensory info, organizes it and relays to cortex
  16. hippocampus
    storage of new memories
  17. amygdala
    • associated with emotional responses
    • responds specifically to fear stimuli
  18. basal ganglia
    • planning and producing movement
    • damage -> Parkinson's disease
  19. wernicke's area
    understanding language
  20. association cortex
    brain's high mental processes
  21. Optic chiasm
    Point in brain where all info from left field of both eyes goes into right hemisphere of brain and vice versa
  22. What happens when the corpus callosum is severed?
    • If object is presented to right visual field, patient can speak name of object
    • If object is presented to left visual field, patient can identify object but cannot speak the name
  23. plasticity
    property of brain which allows it to change
  24. neurogenesis
    • production of new neurons
    • occurs particularly in hippocampus (memories)
  25. cerebral cortex
    outer layer of cerebral hemispheres
  26. pituitary gland
    • at base of hypothalamus
    • master gland
    • releases hormones
  27. Human Genome Project
    • researchers set out to identify precise order of molecules that make up the genes on each of the 23 pairs of human chromosomes
    • we have fewer than 30,000 genes
  28. genotype vs phenotype
    • genotype: genetic makeup (doesn't change)
    • phenotype: observable physical characteristics (always changing)
  29. Polygenic
    a characteristic affected by many genes
  30. gonads
    • main endoctrine gland influencing sexual behavior
    • present in males and females
  31. estrus
    period when female is fertile