Psychology: Chapter 9

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Psychology: Chapter 9
2013-09-28 22:53:34

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  1. developmental psychology
    study of how people grow, mature and change over their life span in physiology, cognition, emotion and social behavior
  2. teratogens
    • environmental factors which harm fetus
    • i.e. fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
  3. what are 2 adaptive reflexes?
    • grasping reflex
    • rooting reflex
  4. synaptic pruning
    connections that are used are kept, those that are not are lost
  5. What is an infant's most robust nonverbal response?
    Looking time
  6. Habituation
    • tendency for organism to become familiar with stimulus after repeated exposure
    • i.e. cute baby and jars video
  7. dishabituation
    don't show stimulus which organism has become habituated to for a while and then the organism will treat it almost as a new stimulus
  8. schema
    expectation about how things happen
  9. assimilation
    process by which we place new info into existing schema
  10. accomodation
    create new schema/alter old schema to introduce new info
  11. What are two problems with Piaget's Stages of Development?
    • not as concrete as piaget assumed
    • ages are inaccurate
  12. What are the 4 stages in Piaget's Stages of Development?
    • sensorimotor (0-2)
    • preoperational (2-7) but more like (2-4)
    • concrete operational (7-11) more like (5-11)
    • formal operational (12-adult)
  13. sensorimotor
    • (0-2)
    • acquire info through senses and motor skills
    • object permanence (continues to exist even when it can't be seen)
  14. pre-operational
    • (2-7) but more like (2-4)
    • can think symbolically and reason
    • no understanding of law of conservation of quantity
    • centration: only thinks about one aspect of problem
    • ego-centrism: no concept of others perspectives
    • focuses on end state rather than transformative processes
  15. concrete operational
    • (7-11) more like (5-11)
    • begin to think logically
    • understand conservation of quantity
    • actions are reversible
  16. formal operational
    • (12- adult)
    • think abstractly
    • form hypothesis
    • think about multiple viewpoints at once
  17. theory of mind
    ability to predict another's behavior based on states of mind
  18. What are Kohlberg's 3 Stages of Moral Reasoning?
    • preconventional level: self interest
    • conventional level: social order & approval
    • postconventional level: justice & equality

    stealing pricey medicine for sick wife example
  19. How do children help to determine their own development?
    Their temperament determines how parents will treat them which in turn affects their development
  20. continuous change
    idea that development is gradual
  21. discontinuous change
    idea that development occurs in concrete steps
  22. What are Erikson's 8 stages of development?
    • Infancy (0-18 months)
    • Early Childhood (2-3 years)
    • Preschool (3-5 years)
    • School Age (6-11 years)
    • Adolescence (12-18 years)
    • Young Adulthood (19- 40 years)
    • Middle Adulthood (40-65 years)
    • Maturity (65-death)
  23. Infancy
    • 0-18 months
    • trust vs mistrust
  24. Early Childhood
    • 2-3 years
    • autonomy vs shame
  25. Preschool
    • 3-5 years
    • Initiative vs Guilt
  26. School Age
    • 6-11 years
    • industry vs inferiority
  27. Adolescence
    • 12-18 years
    • Identity vs. role confusion
  28. Young Adulthood
    • 19-40 years
    • intimacy vs isolation
  29. Middle Adulthood
    • 40-65
    • generativity vs stagnation (must produce something which lives beyond them)
  30. Maturity
    • 65-death
    • ego integrity vs despair
  31. What can a crisis later in life trigger in regard to Erikson's stages of development?
    • Regression to former stage
    • most overcome conflict in each stage to move on to next one
  32. Socialization differences between west and east
    • West: individualist, babies are encouraged to be independent
    • East: defined by collective, in closer contact with caregivers
  33. Lorenz
    discovered imprinting: birds will attach themselves to an adult and follow that adult everywhere
  34. cupboard theory
    feeding is the most important form of attachment
  35. Harlow
    found that monkeys preferred a "mother" who was cuddly to one who provided food
  36. contact comfort theory
    physical touch and reassurance is important to aid social development
  37. strange situation test
    parent -infant separation and reunion procedure which is staged in lab to test security of child's attachment
  38. secure child's reaction to strange situation test (and percentage)
    • 65% 
    • upset at mother's leaving, quickly comforted by mother's return
  39. avoidant child's reaction to strange situation test & causes for this child behavior
    • not distressed by mother's leaving, doesn't seek comfort
    • intrusive parents who force own agenda
  40. ambivalent child's reaction to strange situation test & causes for this child behavior
    • distressed by mother's leaving, not comforted by return
    • parent is missing: drunk or depressed
  41. 4 parenting styles
    authoritative:high parental involvement & control

    authoritarian: low parent involvement, high control

    indulgent-permissive: high parental involvement, low parental control

    indifferent-uninvolved: low parental involvement, low control
  42. when does gender identity begin to form?
    early in prenatal development by amounts of hormones
  43. New York Longitudinal Study
    • Measured babies' temperments as reported by parents
    • easy: 40% difficult 10% slow to warm up 10% varying 35%
  44. infantile amnesia
    inability to remember events from early childhood