Exam 1: Blood

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  1. terms: plasma & formed elements
    • Plasma consists of 91.5% water and 8.5% solutes
    • principal solutes include: nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, electrolytes and proteins(8% all made by liver)-->
    • albumin (60%-osmotic pressure)
    • globulin (40%-immunity)
    • fibrinogen (4%-coagulation)
    • Formed Elements- 1.erythrocytes (RBC) 2. leukocytes (WBC) 3. thrombocytes (platelets)
  2. Functions of blood
    • 1. Transportation 2. Regulation 3. Prevention
    • 1. Transportation-(1. oxygen 2. CO2 3. nutrients 4. waste 5. hormones 6. heat)
    • 2. Regulation-(1. pH:7.35-7.45 2. body temp)
    • 3. Prevention-(1.blood loss 2. fight disease)
  3. protection
    leukocytes (WBC)
  4. Hemolytic disease of the newborn
    • mom (-) baby (+)
    • A disorder due to Rh incompatibility between mother and fetus is called hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), or erythroblastosis fetalis;
    • 2nd pregnancy when it happens
    • jaundice and has severe edema

    treated: Rh- mom a Rhogam shot to desensitize mom, intrauterine transfusion

    Rh system - individuals whose erythrocytes have Rh agglutinogens are classified as Rh+ Rh- (don't). The Rh factors must also be matched when giving a patient a transfusion.
  5. Plasma proteins (albumin)
    • make up 8% of plasma's solutes
    • made by liver
    • Albumin (60%):
    • most abundant protein
    • osmotic pressure (pressure that keeps H2O in bloodstream)
    • blood buffer
    • carrier shuttle molecules through circulation
  6. Plasma composition
    • 91.5% Water 8.5% solutes
    • solutes: nutrients, gases, hormones, wastes, electrolytes and proteins (8%)
    • proteins- albumin (osmotic pressure), globulin (immunity) and fibrinogen (coagulation)
  7. Function of plasma proteins
    • Albumin (60% of the proteins):
    • osmotic pressure
    • blood buffer
    • carrier shuttle molecules
    • Globulins (40%): immunity- anitbodies
    • Fibrinogen (4%): coagulation- forms fibrin threads of blood clot
  8. Blood Clotting (fibrin)
    Fibrinogen protein- coagulation forms fibrin threads of blood clot
  9. Functions of blood
  10. Differential white blood cell count
    • diagnostic test in which specific white blood cells are counted
    • each type of white cell plays a different role, determining the percentage of each type in the blood assists in diagnosing the condition
    • (N<L<M<E<B)(never let monkeys eat bananas)
    • (Neutrophils 40-60%, Lymphocytes20-40%, Monocytes2-8%, Eosinophils1-4%, Basophils,5-1%)
  11. Hematocrit
    • 45%
    • test for anemia
    • measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood
  12. Formed elements characteristics

    *need to add stuff
    • Erythrocytes- no nuclei, no organelles, do not divide, transport O and CO2, change shape spectrin, microcytes (baby rbcs), gets O in the capillaries of lugs)
    • Thrombocytes (platelets)-no nuclei
    • Leukocytes(WBC)- yes nuclei
  13. Stem cells (all formed elements)
    • Blood cells are formed from pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (hemocytoblasts).
    • This process of hemopoiesis (or hematopoiesis) is stimulated by several hematopoietic growth factors. These hematopoietic growth factors stimulate differentiation and proliferation of the various blood cells.
    • Red bone marrow (myeloid tissue) is responsible for producing red blood cells, granular Ieukocytes, and platelets; lymphoid tissue and myeloid tissue produce agranular Ieukocytes.
  14. Hematocrit (def. notes)
    • Hematocrit (Hct) measures the percentage of red blood cells in whole blood
    • 45%
  15. Rh Compatibility
    • mom (-)
    • baby (+)
  16. Erythrocytes (characteristics)
    no nuclei, no organelles, do not divide, transport O and CO2, change shape spectrin, microcytes (baby rbcs), gets O in the capillaries of lugs)
  17. Erythrocytes (function)
    • transport Oxygen and some CO2
    • gets oxygen in the capillaries of lungs
  18. Hemoglobin
    • protein
    • makes RBC red
    • binds easily and reversibly with Oxygen
    • male: 13-18 g/dl
    • female:12-16 g/dl
    • transport 4 molecules of oxygen
    • heme: red pigment, ring-like group, iron atom
    • globin: protein, 4 polypeptide chains
  19. Oxyhemoglobnin
    • lungs
    • oxygen binds to hemogobin <oxyhemoglobin>- 3-D shape and its ruby red
  20. Carbohemoglobin
    • CO2 combines with hemoglobin's amino acids
    • carbon loading (tissues)--> lungs to eliminate
  21. Erythrocytosis
    excess of erythrocytes
  22. Rhogam shot
    Rh- shot given to (-)mom to desensitize her
  23. Reticulocyte
    Reticulocyte immature RBC
  24. Erythropoeisis
    • Erythrocyte formation, called erythropoiesis, occurs in the red bone marrow. It is stimulated by hypoxia (a deficiency of oxygen at the tissue
    • level), which stimulates release of a hormone called erythropoietin by the kidneys
  25. Recycling RBCs
    • macrophages destroy dying RBCs
    • spleen (rbc graveyard)
    • iron is salvaged & bound to protein (ferritin or hemosiderin) & stored for reuse
    • -heme degraded by bilirubin(yellow pigment)
    • -bilirubin binds to albumin for transport
    • -liver cells pick up bilirubin, secrete it (in bile) into the intestine -->utobilinogen

    • GLOBIN (protein):
    • broken down into amino acids sent back to the blood stream
  26. Aggulutinations
    aggulutinations-clump when wrong blood type is given (sticking to each other)

    Image Upload
  27. Jaundice
    • yellow
    • increase of bilirubin
  28. Erythropoiesis live? die? formed?
    • live-circulation
    • die-spleen
    • formed- red bone marrow
  29. Formed Elements (match their functions)
    • Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, and  Thrombocytes
    • thrombocytes (platelets):
    • formed from megakaryocytes
    • 1. aid in repairing blood vessels
    • 2. promote blood clotting
    • 5-9 lifespan
    • removed by macrophages
  30. Leukocytes (WBC characteristics size)
  31. Agranulocytes
    • Lymphocytes and Monocytes
    • 1. Lymphocytes help protect the body against diseases and fight infections.
    • 2. Monocytes- elevated numbers of these cells are associated with chronic infection. When monocytes  enter the tissues they are called macrophages
    • (big eater).
  32. Blood typing
    Image Upload
  33. Lymphocytes (where do they mature?)
    Lymphatic system
  34. Blood typing
    • * Universal Recipient AB 
    • Universal Donor O
  35. Eosinophils
    • Eosinophils combat the effects of histamine in allergic reactions, phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes, and combat parasitic worms (1-4%)
  36. Macrophages
    • Monocytes to Macrophages (enter tissues)– elevated numbers of these cells are associated with chronic infection. When monocytes  enter the tissues they are called macrophages (big eater). 
    • Macrophages are phagocytic cells.
  37. Platelets function
    • formed from cells called megakaryocytes
    • 1. aid in repairing damaged blood vessels
    • 2. promote blood clotting
    • 5-9 lifespan
  38. Hemophilia
    refers to several hereditary bleeding disorders that have similar signs and symptoms
  39. Hemostasis
    • Hemostasis refers to the stoppage of bleeding
    • reduce blood loss (3):
    • 1. vascular spasm (vasoconstricts becomes samaller)
    • Platelets plug formation
    • 3. Blood clotting- enzymatic reactions to from insoluble protein fibrin (3stages):
    •     1. intrinsic and extrinsic pathway to form prothrombinase and pathways converge
    • prothrombin converted into thrombin
    • soluble fibrinogen turned into insoluble fibrin
    • 2. Clot Retracion- clot will tighten
    • 3. Fibrinolysis- dissolving the clot
  40. Platelets plug formation
    Platelet plug formation involves the clumping of platelets around the damage to stop the bleeding
  41. asiprin
    • 1. prevents platelets  agglutination
    • 2. vessel constriction
  42. Blood clotting mechanism
  43. agglutination
    clump up
  44. three main stages of coagulation
    • 1. two pathways to Prothrombin activator (intrinsic and extrinsic)
    • 2. Common pathway to thrombin
    • 3. Common pathway to fibrin mesh
  45. Intrinsic pathway
    • turned on by factors released form the blood
    • triggered by negatively charged surfaces such as  activated platelets, collagen, or glass.
    • slower due to the intermediate steps
    • If tissue becomes damaged blood can then come into contact with collagen fibers in the connective tissue of the blood vessel.  When tissues are damaged this causes the platelets to become activated, resulting in the activation of clotting factor XII.
    •      This begins a sequence of reactions that again results in the activation of factor X.  Once factor X is activated it will combine with factor V to activate the enzyme prothrombinase
  46. Extrinsic Pathway
    • turned on by factors released by tissues
    • triggered by exposing blood to a factor found tissues underneath the damaged endothelium (Factor 3)
    • faster about 15 seconds
    • Tissue factor (TF) also called thromboplastin
    • is released from damaged cells. In the presence of Ca2+ TF begins a sequence of reactions that ultimately activates the clotting factor X.  Once factor X is activated it combines with factor V in the presence of Ca2+ to form prothrombinase
  47. Blood clot def.
    • coagulation, fibrin mesh
    • vitamin K needed for the factors
  48. Heparin
    • Basophils develop into mast cells that liberate heparin
    • natural anticoagulant, inhibits the intrinsic pathway
  49. Plasmin function
    • Plasmin is what dissolves clots
    • fibrin-digesting enzyme
    • begins within two days until the clot finally dissolves
  50. Clot formation after fibrinolysis
    • Factors limiting normal clot growth
    • '1. swift removal of clotting factors
    • 2. inhibition of activated clotting factors
    • Antithrobin III
    • Heparin (natural anticoagulant contained in basophil)
  51. Fibrinolysis
  52. aged and damaged RBC;s are broken down by which organ:
  53. Erythropoiesis
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Exam 1: Blood
2013-09-27 16:12:47

blood exam1 fall'13
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