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What are the 4 arguments/factors surrounding the topic?
- Regime of Value
How does Authenticity and Commodification de-value religious objects?
- Transforms objects into spectacles
- Removes original authentic meaning
- Assigns objects new meanings
- Sacrality replaced by value as commodity
- Manufactured experiences
- It's symptomatic of modern secular society
- Tourism has turned culture into a commodity
What is the counter-argument to the de-valuation of religious objects?
- It doesn't de-value sacrality, it gives a new regime of value as parallel biographies are created
- Tourism resurrects religious objects
- Objects become symbols of revitalisation and renewal of religious traditions
1. How is tourism viewed in the modern world?
2. Which approach to tourists take when looking at objects?
- 1a) A kind of religion for modern secular societies
- 1b) Tourist sites are 'shrines' of the contemporary world
2) Tourism looks at objects with an object driven and symbolic approach
What was the Grand Tour?
What did people wish to achieve?
- At end of 17c
- Circuit of European Travel by British aristocracy
- In the early 19c, middle classes went too
- Emotional cultivation
- Scientists collecting
1. How and why did Tourism evolve?
2. Are there different types of Tourist Gaze?
3. How did the Tourist Gaze affect how objects were viewed?
Tourism was shaped by changes in the modern world from mid 19c onwards (political, economic, tech, nationalism)
Different types of tourism and gaze - Collective gaze, Romantic gaze
Places and objects are changed to make them more attractive to the tourist gaze
Tell me about Thomas Cook...
- 1841 First package tour
- Motivated by religious convictions
- Tours were for moral benefit
Religion as a Regime of Value
Who was Emile Durkheim?
- Late 19c
- Founder of modern sociology
- Pioneer of sociological study of religion
- He defined religious objects
What was Emile Durkheim's definition of a religious object?
- Religion invests objects with special meanings and significances
- Sacred quality is of social and cultural construction
- Sacrality is determined by an arbitrary system of rules surrounding the object - not the object itself
- Religious objects = sacred things, set apart
EXAMPLE of how tourism has broken down religion as a regime of value:
Icon of Saint Sara
- Annually in May, 1000's of Romani gather for the festival of their patron saint
- Icon carried from the Church to the sea for a symbolic cleansing
- Intertwined with music, historical, and cultural elements
How has the festival of Saint Sara evolved into a cultural spectacle?
- Although it has vital religious elements, it has evolved into a cultural spectacle
- Journalists and tourists swarm to the village in southern France to watch
- Local tourism office promotes it as a cultural spectacle (touristification from within)
What regimes of value does the festival of Saint Sara have...
- Tourism has re-contextualised the festival into a new regime of value
- The festival has 2 regimes of value - history & culture
- Dan Brown has given a further level, with his suggestion that St Sara was the daughter of Christ and Mary Magdeline
- This new value is a feminist perspective on Christian theology
EXAMPLE of touristification
The Megaliths of Flores
- In Indonesia
- Markers of an ancient past
- Symbols of relationship between the living and the dead
What were the driving factors behind the touristification of the Megaliths of Flores?
- Tourist board driven
- To stimulate local economy
- Promote nationalism
- Integrate cultural minorities into the state
- The tourist board encourages tourists to visit local villages to see how they interact with the stones
How has the touristification of the Megaliths of Flores affected the way that Tourists view the stones?
Our interpretations of the objects are 'mediated' by collections of images and ideas
We have cultural confusion as the Indonesians are now Catholic so they stone are not as culturally significant to them.