Music History test 2

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Music History test 2
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  1. Where did the baroque era begin
    Northern italy 

    Venice, Florence, Mantua
  2. Why did the Baroque era musically Begin
    it was a reaction against the Madrigal

    they didnt like word painting (said that the many voices of the madrigal could not do it properly) 

    they created a blend of music and speech that would become opera
  3. how did music in venice change during the baroque
    • they used 2-3 alternating choirs
    •       would sing together at the impact

    • homophony became the norm
    • began to mix instruments and voices

    • its all about extravegance and
    • As music became more extravagant composers had to follow stricter rules
  4. who were the most important venetian composers and what made them so cool
    • Most important Venetian composers were Andrea Gabrieli and Giovanni
    • Gabrieli (transitional between renaissance and baroque)

    • • They were organists of St. Marks Basilica (the cathedral in venice)
    • ◦Would put different people in different lofts to create amazing echo

    • effects
    • ◦Had lots of balconies and alcoves
    • ◦Architecturally suited to producing music with lots of contrast in

    • timbre
    • ◦Big show every weekend with different choirs / instrumentalists in

    all the different lofts (anthiponal music) (stile concertato - all about contrast) (Corinth spezzati - polychoral)
  5. what are the style features of early baroque music
    • Style features of early baroque music (TEXT DRIVEN)(called second practice)
    • ◦Everything is based on the text

    • ◦Dissonance is based on the text
    • • This was" created" by a group of scholars, composers, singes,and poets called the Florentine Camerata
    • ◦They invented the idea of text driven monody

    • ◦Rhythm and meter
    • ‣ Becomes more definite and consistent
    • ‣ Bar lines are used for the first time ever!

    • ◦Texture (basso continuo)
    • ‣Bass part in baroque music is played by an organ,harpsichord,or other chordal instrument
    • • Reinforces the bass line and adds chords to go with it
    • ‣  Ground bass
    • Musical form that is constructed from the ground up
    • Bass instruments play a single repeating bassline that the upper voices

    move through (an example is cannon in D)

    • • Also called basso ostinato
    • ‣ Monody is voice+basso continuo

    • ◦Functional harmony
    • ◦We get away from first practice (polyphonic style)

    • ‣ Where dissonance was carefully prepared and resolved
    • ‣ Harmony evolves rapidly
    • ‣ Developedthemajor/minorsystem
    • ‣ Chords have specific harmonic movement (what we learned in 111)
  6. Opera
      what is it
      where did it start
      what are the main parts
    drama presented in music with characters singing instead of speaking

    began in florence where it was originally put on to celebrate royal weddings and other large celebrations

    • the two main parts are 
    •        Aria - extended piece for a solo singer that is very elaborate. Accompaniment is usually at a minimum so that words can be understood. This is used when a singer mulls over feelings/thoughts
    •       Recitative - technique of declaiming words musically in a theatrical manner. singing voice closely follows the free rhythm of highly emotional speech. Accompaniment is usually at a minimum so you can hear the words. used for plot action, dialogue, or other situations where drama needs to be understood
  7. Claudio Monteverdi
    part of the florentine camerata

    last great madrigalist and first great opera composer (one food in the renaissance and one in the baroque)

    he was attacked for being too radical 

    wrote Orfeo which was considered the first operatic masterpiece

    he wrote The coronation of poppea
  8. what contributed to the rise of instrumental music?
    • dance
    • - we get everything from ballet suites to opera

    • virtuosity
    • -showing off particularly amazing players

    • vocal music
    • - imitative polyphony was transferred to the instrumental medium
  9. who was girolamo frescobaldi
    • a member of the earlier baroque
    • he was the formost organ and harpsichord virtuoso during the 17th century
    • - great teacher and composer
    • he worked in st. peters for 35 years
    • composed works in several distinct genres that helped create the italian instumental style 
    • - toccata - meant to capture the spirit of his own improvisation
    • - canzonas - organized works emphasizing imitative texture (fugue came from this)
    • -stylized dance - formed with 2 repeated phrases (aab or aabb)
    • -sets of variations based on contemporary vocal music
  10. what was the favored teture of the early and middle baroque
    2 strings and a basso continuo
  11. what is a sonata and when did it appear
    • multi movement piece 
    • appeared during the baroque era

    • trio sonata 
    • - church sonata - played in church
    • movements were slow fast slow fast

    • - chamber sonata
    • movements were fast slow fast slow
    • could be stylized dances
  12. who was the largest sponsor of the arts (country). who was the monarch and what was the music for
    france



    • With king louis XIV the "sun king"
    • All of France orbited around the royal courts 

    Ceremony was carried out to the extreme

    Lots of different kings and royalty try to mimic him especially in Germany 

    The music of absolutism

    Music was used to glorify rulers

    • Used trumpeters for battles/ hunts 
    • Musicians for balls and dinners

    Main vehicle for absolutism was opera

    • Huge stages and sets showed off wealth
    • Stores in opera were allegorical tributes to the people who paid for them 

    One tells of an emperor who survives a plot to kill hi and he forgives the plotters even though if he didn't have to
  13. who is Henry Purcell?
    • he was the greatest english composer of all time
    • worked at a girls school and the organist at the westminister abby

    • he wrote dido and aeneas 
    • - it was his only true opera 
    • No extremely difficult passages 
    • Performed at a girls school
    • He tailors the idea of an opera and fixes it to English
    • Very hard to do
  14. how did music become more precise/systemized during the baroque
    Scales become tempered more exactly than before so all 24 major and minor keys were available to composers

    Harmony became systematized (tonal harmony)

    • Regularity became the ideal in rhythm
    • Assigned musical devices and techniques to emotion 

    One emotion would be assigned a rhythm or melodic motive
  15. how did musicans make their living in the court, the church, and the opera house
    Musicians and composers worked to make a living not necessarily because of an artistic calling they worked for

    The church 

    • Organists or choirmasters would compose and play their own music
    • Important feasts may call for more complicated works ensembles or soloists

    The court

    • Musician would be hired to work at the whim of their employers
    • Court musicians kept better in touch with developments than church musicians since they had to travel with their employers

    The opera house

    • Public opera house would hire composers and musicians
    • Composers would conduct their own operas while playing harpsichord
  16. what were the style features of the late baroque period

    in the areas of: melodic quality, rhythm, dynamics, tone color, the orchestra, ornamentation, texture, and form

    also talk about the emotional world of baroque music
    Through melodic quality 

    • Repetition then variation 
    • They preferred thoroughness and homogeneity
    • In longer pieces they would be broken into pieces that were homogeneous within themselves
    • Often very complex

    Lots of decoration

    Often used sequence

    Rhythm 

    • Lots of energy
    • Highly regular determined motion
    • Harmonic rhythm is very consistent

    Speed at which the chord progression changes


    Dynamics

    • Dynamics were very consistent they didn't change except for the natural movement from high to low
    • Abrupt changes happened at the beginnings and ends of sections or movements

    Tone color

    Not often critical because pieces could be played by many different instruments

    The baroque orchestra

    Group of instruments in the violin family

    Violin, viola, cello, bass

    They added a keyboard instrument as continuo

    Harpsichord or organ

    Woodwinds and brass could be added but they were not constant or fixed

    Ornamentation

    Improvising melodic extras in arias

    Texture

    • Polyphonic or contrapuntal 
    • The continuo

    • All the polyphony was supported by harmony in the continuo
    • They read figured bass and played it on a lute, harpsichord or piano 

    Could be characterized as polarized

    See page 116


    Musical form

    • Clearer and more regular 
    • Music needed to be produced quickly for the court and because of that was kinda formulaic 
    • Also true because of the scientific spirit of the age


    The emotional world of baroque music

    • Analyzed emotions in a general sense rather than focusing on a specific emotion
    • Emotions felt very powerful but only one could be explored in a piece of music
  17. what is one possible reason for the rise of instrumental music?
    May be because of the rise of better instruments (strad)
  18. define concerto and concerto grosso
    Concerto

    Small group or soloist against an orchestra 


    Concerto grosso

    • Generally featured 2 violins
    • Small group vs an orchestra

    Solo concerto

    Solo instrument vs orchestra


    Generally in 3 movements 

    • Fast - slow - fast 
    • Movement is a self contained section of music that is part of a larger work
  19. define ritornello form
    Ritornello form (in the fast movements of the concerto)

    • Music starts and ends at the same place
    • In the middle the same section will be played in the altered key
    • In between the soloist does the modulation

    Orchestra affirms the new key

    Contrast between two musical ideas

    One in the orchestra and one in the soloist
  20. Antonio Vivaldi
    • Red haired priest
    • Teacher at a girls orphanage in Venice

    Had his own orchestra made up of these girls

    • Mostly wrote opera
    • Was a violin virtuoso
    • Wrote hundreds of concertos and is the champion of them
    • Published few of them in groups of 6 - 12
  21. Baroque variation form
    Baroque variation form: the ground bass

    Variation form 

    • simplest and most characteristic of baroque period
    • Successive, uninterrupted repetition of one clearly defined melodic unit with slight changes without ever loosing the original theme 
    • Tend to occur above repeating bass patens (basso ostinato)


    Bass can be slightly varied


    • Dynamics, tone, color are often changed in variations
    • Tempo key and mode can be changed but are less common
    • Many names for this form (chaconne, passacagila, or ground plus more)
  22. Baroque variation form
    Baroque variation form: the ground bass

    Variation form 

    • simplest and most characteristic of baroque period
    • Successive, uninterrupted repetition of one clearly defined melodic unit with slight changes without ever loosing the original theme 
    • Tend to occur above repeating bass patens (basso ostinato)


    Bass can be slightly varied


    • Dynamics, tone, color are often changed in variations
    • Tempo key and mode can be changed but are less common
    • Many names for this form (chaconne, passacagila, or ground plus more)
  23. John Sebastian Bach
    Was part of a long line of musicians but probably the most famous

    Won a position as a church organist before he was 20

    Worked his way up to a court position where he composed lots of musi

    Weimar (1708-1717)

    Where he figured out fugue

    Cothen Court (1717-1723)

    This is where he wrote the Brandenburg concertos

    There are six of them

    • Bach sent 6 concerto grossos to the margrave of Brandenburg (we are not quite sure why)
    • Gift from bachs employer to Brandenburg

    They are extremely good examples of how creative you can get in a concerto



    Eventually became cantor at St. Thomas Church in Leipzig, Germany


    • Huge Lutheran church
    • 1723-1750

    His job was to compose, perform, and organize all the music for the 4 churches in town

    Made a new cantata almost every week


    At the end of his life he was considered old fashioned and not performed much 

    He did not think his music would survive him

    He had 20 children 

    They all learned music and how to copy it

    Much of the individual parts he had were copied by his children
  24. Fugue

    talk about subject,countersubject,stretto, augmentation, dimunenatin, inversion
    Fugue


    Can be thought of as systemized imitative polyphony 

    • Most organized form of imitative polyphony
    • Most tonal form of imitative polyphony 

    Is a polyphonic composition for a fixed number of lines built on a single theme (called the subject) 










    Fugal exposition 

    The way each voice presents the subject in an orderly standardized way

    One voice enters alone then other voices add in one by one


    Voice enters in with the theme in I called the subject

    Voice enters in with the theme in V called the answer

    • Voice enters in with the theme in I called the subject
    • Voice enters in the the theme in V called the answer





    Passages of music that separate the subjects are called episode

    • Fugues generally have the form 
    • Exposition > episode > subject > episode > subject....
    • The episodes are generally derived from the subject


    Fugal devices

    Countersubject 

    A second subject that fits in counterpoint with the first shadowing it in all it's appearances after the beginning

    Can be created using

    Inversion - flipping the interval of a melody upside down

    If a melody went C D it would instead go C Bb

    Stretto - shorten the space between each voice entering

    Fugal subject treated imitatively

    • augmentatoin= making all notes in the fugue longer by a ratio (quarter note becomes a half note)
    • dimunenation= Making al notes in the fugue shorter
    • i
  25. The dance suite
    The dance suite






    • A suite is a collection of stylized dances
    • Every suite has allemande, courante, sarabande, gigue

    Then add other dances in

    • Guy who put suite together was Johan jakob frobuger
    • Most dances are in binary or rounded binary 

    • Binary |:A:||:B:|
    • Rounded binary  |:A:||:BA':|


    Allemande

    German duple dance

    Courante

    French triple dance

    Sarabande 

    Slow triple dance from Spain

    Gigue 

    Celtic fast song in triple meter

    Minuet 

    Triple time dance in a moderate tempo

    Tambourin

    Fast usually compound metered dance that is percussive

    Sarabande 

    • Triple time dance with accents on beat one and two 
    • Slower than a minuet


    Custom was to collect many dances and make a suite

    Only rule was they had to be in the same key and the last of them was always fast 

    Last dance was frequently a gigue 

    • A dance in compound meter that may have been derived from a jig. (3/8 or 6/8)
    • It's Celtic 



    Composers also wrote dances and dance suites for lute or harpsichord that were stylized dances

    Written like a dance but were written for listening rather than dancing
  26. Baroque Dance Form
    Baroque dance form 

    They all have 2 sections a and b 

    • Each ends with a strong cadence 
    • Tend to include the same motives, cadences, etc and sound symmetrical

    Usually binary form


    AABB or |:A:||:B:|


    Trio

    With shorter dances composers tended to group them in pairs of the same type with the first coming back to the second

    Can be thought of as ABA (large scale form)

    The B section would. Be a trio which would be softer or changed in mode to make a contrast
  27. Jean - Philippe Rameau
    Jean- Philippe Rameau

    Settled in opera after being a organist

    • He is known as a theorist, organist, and opera composer
    • His book is Traité de de l'ttamonie

    Produced his first opera at 50

    It was controversial and he got a lot of attention because of it

    Wrote letters and operas for the rest of his life and since he kept up with modern events of the time he stayed interesting

    Listening

    Minuet and tambourin from Castor et Pollux prologue
  28. Where was the only place instrumental music was played?
    Court
  29. How did words and music relate in baroque vocal music
    Words and music

    Specific ideas and words accompanied specific musical gestures

    Sorrow meant sighing melodic jest urges and dissonant harmony
  30. talk about baroque opera

    remember to touch recitative (including secco) Aria and Opera Seria
    • Opera
    • Most of baroque secular vocal music was opera
    • Appeal of opera was the ability to project emotion

    • Music amplified the acting and situation presented
    • Also by vocal virtuosity could you project emotion

    Coloratura - fast brilliant runs, scales, high notes, or vocal cadenza 


    Italian opera seria

    • Was the principal type of Italian baroque opera
    • Meant serious opera
    • Plots were met to stir up emotions like passion, rage, grief, etc.
    • Usually plot was based on historical subjects
    • Lots of solo singing by sopranos and mezzo-sopranos including castrati

    Lower  voices had smaller rolls 


    Recitative

    • Italian for recite 
    • Technique of declaiming words musically not a  theatrical manner 
    • Always instrumental accompanist
    • Point is a SPEECH LIKE SONG 

    Not organized into a form or with a necessarily recognizable melody

    Secco recitative 

    • "Dry"
    • Most common
    • Recitative with basso continuo 

    Very small usually only cello and harpsichord to let the vocalist do their work and be easier to hear


    Accompanied recitative

    • Uncommon 
    • Recitative with an orchestral accompaniment 


    Aria

    • A piece for solo singer with lots of musical elaboration and coherence
    • Accompaniment is usually the whole orchestra
    • Usually is in de capo (ABA) or free de capo (ABA') for


    Sometimes called da capo arias

    • You would hear A (text a few times [2-3] ) B (this section was much shorter) then you would have a "da capo al fine"
    • Would go to the top and sing A again with ordementation


    Generally the second A would have much more ordementation

    Cadenza, runs, etc.
  31. george Frederic Handel
    George Frederic Handel

    • Did not come from a family of musicians
    • Had great success first in opera then as a court musician in Handover, Germany

    Kept leaving for London where he made a career

    • When opera lost popularity he created the oratorio
    • He lost his sight at the end of his life but continued composing by dictating to a secretary
    • Listening: Julius Caesar (Giulio Cesarean in Egitto)

    Background

    Roman history of Cleopatra seducing Julius Caesar

    Lots of fake information thrown in in order to make it more interesting


    Aria "la giustizia"
  32. oratorio
    Oratorio 

    Basically an opera on a religious story

    Without scenery, costumes or acting

    • Uses the chorus (makes it different from opera)
    • It is not part of the church service but something different

    People would often go to these instead of operas during feast times like lent
  33. The church Cantata
    The church cantata

    A piece of moderate length for voices and instruments 

    • Multi movement work 
    • Usually has aria, recitative, and choral music 
    • Often has a movement for the congregation to sing

    Chorale - monophonic strophic hymn tune intended for congregational singing


    • Religious cantatas addressed the content for a specific day
    • Bach wrote a cantata for every day of the year and over 200 have survived
  34. The lutheran chorale
    The Lutheran chorale

    • It's a Lutheran hymn
    • Luther of the Protestant reformation placed a lot of emphasis on hymn singing by the congregation 

    Hymn was the foundation of his worship

    Gapped chorale 

    • The melody of the hymn is given in spurts 
    • Continuous music in the non solo instruments / voices
  35. talk about the beginnings of the classical period of music
    Classical style began to appear in Europe (northern Italy and Germany)

    • Vienna was the real center of its development
    • Paris remains the center of Europe
    • This appeared in 1740-1815 (classical era)

    • Courts were the main sponsor of music
    • Then the public in 1790 because of French Revolution

    More secular music


    The enlightenment and music 

    Art was expected to please rather than instruct, express, or impress

    Divertimento became popular

    A piece designed to entertain

    This was the only time where the great music of the day was only written to entertain
  36. talk about Rousseau and opera
    Rousseau and opera


    Natural man was born good and corrupted by civilization

    He hated opera because he thought that music was more natural and basic than speech 

    He demanded a kind of opera that would pro trey people as they were in real life

    • No complicated plot, simple close to nature music about normal people
    • He pounced and loved operas like the maid and the mistress

    No elaborate coloratura, no rich harmony, no exaggerated emotions, and the plot is one big joke


    Rousseau, pregolesi, and Mozart make comic opera the most progressive during their times
  37. when did public concerts first appear
    classical era


    Public concerts began in this time

    No longer was music only in private homes or palaces but was available in newly built concert halls

    Very first concert hall was built in Oxford 

    Called Holywell Music room and it hold 150 people

    This let purely orchestral music move into the public domain
  38. talk about the style features in classical music

    include concepts, types, rhythm, dynamics, tone color and discuss the classical orchestra, melody, texture, and counterpoint
    ▸ Two big concepts


    These ideals were present in everything during the 18th century

    • 1) being natural
    • 2) pleasing variety

    • Symphony, string quartet, singspiel, opera seria, opera buffa all become more common
    • Rhythm

    • Highly flexible
    • Rhythms of themes tend to differ in both obvious and subtitle ways

    Dynamics

    • Also very flexible
    • Dynamic markings came into the common use and the crescendo and decrescendo were invented 
    • The pianoforte was invented and had a full dynamic range which allowed this to happen

    Tone color and the classical orchestra

    More variety then just the strings in the baroque orchestra

    We add flutes, oboe, bassoon, (and later) clarinet as well as French horn, trumpet, and timpani

    • This new orchestra becomes the most flexible and versatile resource that composers could use
    • Stil galant - slowing down harmony and dealing with the movement from 1>V

    • Simpler, transparent, less counterpuntal, more melodic 
    • Very repetitive


    Melody

    Uncomplicated, singable melody with clear phrases

    Theme and variation became more popular


    Texture

    Homophony 

    • Straightforward harmonic accompaniment
    • No counterpoint and even the bass line wasn't particularly melodic 

    They wanted to specify their harmonies more precisely

    Basso continuo was thrown out


    Counterpoint

    • They did still do it but it was much more delicate and unobtrusive
    • It was used to create the impression of tension
  39. form in classical music
    Form in classical music

    Repetition and cadences

    • Themes tend to be repeated immediately after being played and are repeated many times in the same piece
    • Themes are lead into very distinctly 
    • Themes are closed off very distinctly

    They used multiple cadences (it's a great indicator of classical era music)

    especially at the end of movements

    Listening: Haydn symphony no 95 in c minor second movement

    • Formal deliberate music 
    • Repeated cadences at the end to close the movement 

    Listening: aria "no capito" from don Giovanni

    Repeated cadence in singer then in orchestra 


    classical forms 

    Limited number of forms

    • Sonata, minuet, rondo, and theme and variations
    • Forms tempered the vast contrasts that composers put in their pieces and made them manageable.
  40. talk about the symphony including sonata form
    The symphony

    Grew out of many baroque genres

    • Came from opera overtures and concertos 
    • Born in Italy from the man Sammartini

    • Grew up elsewhere (Mannheim)
    • Hits maturity in Vienna 


    The movements 


    There are exceptions to these guidelines

    Opening

    • Fast/ moderate
    • Sonata from 
    • Sometimes has a slow introduction

    Second movement

    • Slow or very slow
    • Sonata form, variations, rondo or other

    Minuet (with trio)

    • Moderate
    • Minuet form

    Closing movement

    • Fast / very fast
    • Sonata or rondo form


    Sonata form

    • Closely associated with the symphony
    • Very popular because it allowed flexibility of expression
    • It's a large scale example of A B A' form (can be slightly different see p 167)

    A is the exposition - aba small form 

    Basic material for the movement is exposed or share (a)

    Often a change in key follows the initial playing (called a bridge)

    This is part of what gives sonata from it's forward movement


    Second group (new melodic themes that contrasts with the first theme) are introduced  (b)

    Second theme - theme in the second group that stands out

    • The cadence theme or closing theme makes a very solid ending and usually has more than one cadence (a)
    • A section is usually repeated












    B is the development

    Take the themes from the exposition and change them 

    You can break them up, recombine them, re orchestrate them, and show them in new context

    • Frequent modulation is common
    • The last modulation that returns to the origional key is called the  retransition 

    A' is the recapitulation 

    Is basically a step by step review of the piece completely in the tonic key
  41. talk about sonata form
    Sonata form

    • Closely associated with the symphony
    • Very popular because it allowed flexibility of expression
    • It's a large scale example of A B A' form (can be slightly different see p 167)

    A is the exposition - aba small form 

    Basic material for the movement is exposed or share (a)

    Often a change in key follows the initial playing (called a bridge)

    This is part of what gives sonata from it's forward movement


    Second group (new melodic themes that contrasts with the first theme) are introduced  (b)

    Second theme - theme in the second group that stands out

    • The cadence theme or closing theme makes a very solid ending and usually has more than one cadence (a)
    • A section is usually repeated












    B is the development

    Take the themes from the exposition and change them 

    You can break them up, recombine them, re orchestrate them, and show them in new context

    • Frequent modulation is common
    • The last modulation that returns to the origional key is called the  retransition 

    A' is the recapitulation 

    Is basically a step by step review of the piece completely in the tonic key
  42. wolfgang amadeus mozart
    Written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 

    Born in a musical family and traveled with his father who was a composer

    • Very hard worker
    • Wasn't good with money

    Bad luck, bad choices

    Because of his travel his work synthesized the music of the world together

    "International composer"


    Amazing pianist (virtuoso to the max)

    Invented the singing allegro

    • He premiered his first symphony when he was 8 years old
    • He took his fathers position in the court where he was born with his father but hated it and left 

    Because of his father and the archbishop 

    He moved to Vienna

    Wrote his best operas here

    He made his living writing opera

    • A lot of his work was influenced by working with opera singiners (needed to be set up)
    • Including the magic flute
    • Best example of Viennese Classic style

    • Died while composing a requiem mass
    • May have been poisoned 

    Probably worked himself to death
  43. classical variation form
    Classical variation form

    • Repetition of a clearly defined theme with changes at each repetition
    • Idea is to create many contrasting moods with the same theme
    • Variations were part of the trade for virtuosos

    People would suggest a popular tune and the person would play variations on that theme (usually piano player)
  44. franz joseph Haydn
    Franz Joseph Haydn(1732-1809)


    • Was not born into a musical family
    • Was sent to be a choir boy in Vienna in the st Stephens cathedral

    After his voice broke he was a freelance musician before being hired as a composer by prince Paul Anton esterhazy

    • He wrote music for the prince's chapel, opera house, theater, chamber groups, and orchestra
    • He had a huge output
    • He turned to choral music at the end of his life


    • He is a perfect musical representation of the enlightenment
    • One of the last composers to be hired by a family 

    After this people were mostly free agents
  45. talk about minuet form including classical dance form and baroque dance form
    Minuet form


    Minuet was the only dance to survive the baroque probably because of how popular it was in court

    It also forms excellent contrast to the first movement (sonata form) of any symphony


    Baroque and classical dance form

    Baroque dance form

    |:A:||:B:| - |:C:||:D:| - AB

    • Or minuet trio minuet
    • Or ABA


    Classical dance form

    2 types the second is more common

    • |:A:||:BA:| - |:C:||:DC:| - ABA
    • |:A:||:BA':| - |:C:||:DC':| - ABA

    Classical dance form is usually called ternary form because of the ABA'
  46. talk about rondo form
    Rondo form

    • Introduce a tune and come back to it after episodes
    • Many forms but the listening is ABACA coda
    • Listening: symphony number 95 in c minor
  47. talk about a sonata
    Sonata

    • A composition for one or two instruments only
    • Designed for private performances usually by amatures
    • Piano and violin sonatas were common
    • Movements

    • Fast in sonata from
    • Slow in sonata, variation, rondo, or other form
    • Fast often in rondo form
  48. stile concerto
    choir a vs choir b

    saint marcs basicalla
  49. ritornello form
    Orchestra stars and plays the theme (Ritornello)

    Mosaic of themes that will be developed by soloist

    • Soloist modulates to five
    • Orchestra plays similar material to the beginning in new key (Ritornello)
    • Soloist plays and modulates back to one
    • Orchestra plays similar material to the beginning (Ritornello)
  50. tocatta: define
    caputre the spirit of frescibaldi's improvisation
  51. canzonas
    organized works emphasizing imitative texture

    ancestor of fugue
  52. ground bass
    bass repeats a short melody

    (cannon in d)
  53. music and absolutism
    The music of absolutism

    Music was used to glorify rulers

    • Used trumpeters for battles/ hunts 
    • Musicians for balls and dinners

    Main vehicle for absolutism was opera

    • Huge stages and sets showed off wealth
    • Stores in opera were allegorical tributes to the people who paid for them 

    One tells of an emperor who survives a plot to kill hi and he forgives the plotters even though if he didn't have to
  54. da capo aria
    de capo (ABA) or free de capo (ABA') for


    Sometimes called da capo arias

    • You would hear A (text a few times [2-3] ) B (this section was much shorter) then you would have a "da capo al fine"
    • Would go to the top and sing A again with ordementation


    Generally the second A would have much more ordementation

    Cadenza, runs, etc.
  55. chorale prelude
    is a short liturgical composition for organ using a chorale (a simple tune, often derived from Gregorian chant) as its basis
  56. ouverture
    Ouverture, found in the French ballets de cour as early as 1640.[4] This French overture consists of a slow introduction in a marked "dotted rhythm" (i.e., exaggerated iambic, if the first chord is disregarded), followed by a lively movement in fugato style. The overture was frequently followed by a series of dance tunes before the curtain rose, and would often[vague] return following the Prologue to introduce the action proper. This ouverture style was also used in English opera, most notably in Henry Purcell's Dido and Æneas.
  57. italian opera seria
    • Was the principal type of Italian baroque opera
    • Meant serious opera
    • Plots were met to stir up emotions like passion, rage, grief, etc.
    • Usually plot was based on historical subjects
    • Lots of solo singing by sopranos and mezzo-sopranos including castrati

    Lower  voices had smaller rolls
  58. Music and the enlightenment
    Prelude: music and the enlightenment


    Classical style began to appear in Europe (northern Italy and Germany)

    • Vienna was the real center of its development
    • Paris remains the center of Europe
    • This appeared in 1740-1815 (classical era)

    • Courts were the main sponsor of music
    • Then the public in 1790 because of French Revolution

    More secular music


    The enlightenment and music 

    Art was expected to please rather than instruct, express, or impress

    Divertimento became popular

    A piece designed to entertain

    This was the only time where the great music of the day was only written to entertain
  59. stil galant
    Stil galant - slowing down harmony and dealing with the movement from 1>V

    • Simpler, transparent, less counterpuntal, more melodic 
    • Very repetitive

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