Psychology: Chapter 10

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alipeace11
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237364
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Psychology: Chapter 10
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2013-09-28 23:25:54
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Emotion Motivation
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Emotion and Motivation
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  1. primary emotions
    • evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures
    • include anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness
  2. 5 secondary emotions
    • blends of primary emotions
    • remorse, guilt, shame, submission, anticipation
  3. valance
    how positive/negative an emotion is
  4. activation
    how arousing an emotion is
  5. James-Lange Theory
    As a direct result of physical reactions, we feel emotion: feel sad BECAUSE we cry
  6. Cannon-Bard Theory
    mind and body both experience emotion, at same time independently
  7. facial feedback hypothesis
    facial expressions cause feeling of emotion i.e smiling makes you happier
  8. limbic system
    brain structures which border cerebral cortex, associated with emotion
  9. What is the function of the amygdala with regard to emotion?
    processes emotional significance of stimuli
  10. What is the longer pathway which emotional information can take to reach amygdala?
    from thalamus to visual/auditory cortex to amygdala
  11. Emergency Emotional Shortcut
    In an emergency, emotional info will go directly from thalamus to amygdala
  12. Schacter-Singer 2 Factor Theory
    stimulus -> arousal -> cognitive label of emotion -> emotion
  13. What can the Schacter-Singer 2 Factor Theory lead to?
    misattribution of arousal
  14. What are four methods of regulating emotion?
    • humor
    • thought suppression & rumination (not effective)
    • rumination (focusing on undesired thoughts)
    • distraction
  15. display rules
    govern how and when people exhibit emotions
  16. somatic marker theory
    most self reglatory actions and decisions are affected by bodily reactions (somatic markers)

    when contemplating action you experience emotional reaction based on expectation of action's outcome
  17. affect as information theory
    we use current moods to make judgments
  18. 4 qualities of motivation
    energizing, directive, helps animals persist, strength of motivation
  19. need
    state of biological or social deficiency
  20. drive
    creates arousal to motivate organism to satisfy a need
  21. Yerkes-Dodson law
    performance increases w. arousal up to a certain point and then decreases with increasing arousal
  22. extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation
    • extrinsic: external goal i.e. grade, money
    • intrinsic: when goals are performed for their own sake
  23. self-determination theory
    people are motivated to satisfy needs for competence, relatedness to others and autonomy
  24. drive theory
    motivation is based on internal state of tension which motivates animal to reduce tension
  25. self actualization
    when someone achieves personal dreams and aspirations
  26. self perception theory
    people are seldom aware of specific motives
  27. self efficacy
    belief that your efforts will lead you to success
  28. need to belong theory
    need for interpersonal attachments
  29. what are the 4 stages of the sexual response cycle?
    • excitement phase
    • plateau phase
    • orgasm phase
    • resolution phase
  30. excitement phase
    • contemplation of sexual activity
    • men: erection
    • women: vagina expands, nipples enlarge
  31. plateau phase
    • pulse rate, breathing, blood pressure increases
    • frenzied phase of sexual activity
  32. orgasm phase
    • involuntary muscle contractions
    • women: rhythmic contractions of vagina
    • men: ejaculation of semen
  33. resolution phase
    • dramatic release of sexual tension
    • male: refractory period
  34. oxytocin
    • hormone released during sexual arousal and orgasm
    • promotes feelings of love and attachment
  35. Which neurotransmitters are involved in sexual activity?
    • dopamine: stimulates sexual activity
    • serotonin: implicated in sexual behavior
    • nitric acid
  36. emotion
    feeling state characterized by subjective conscious experience and bodily arousal
  37. leptin
    hormone which travels to hypothalamus and inhibits eating
  38. gherlin
    hormone which triggers eating
  39. Kinsely
    • taught course on marriage & included sex
    • found differences in male and female sexual desires
  40. Buss
    surveyed 10,000 people across 37 cultures and found that men value good looks and virginity while women value good financial prospects & ambition
  41. sexual strategies theory
    women and men have evolved distinct mating strategies b/c they faced different adaptive problems in terms of reproducing
  42. excitation transfer
    • form of misattribution
    • residual arousal is often misattributed to event which follows arousal
  43. sensory-specific satiety
    Animals eat more when presented with a variety of foods

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