Med Terms Chapter 8

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mkpfister
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Med Terms Chapter 8
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2013-10-03 01:58:20
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  1. ADHD
    attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
  2. CNS
    central nervous system
  3. CSF
    cerebrospinal fluid
  4. CVA
    cerebrovascular accident
  5. EEG
    electroencephalogram
  6. GAD
    generalized anxiety disorder
  7. LP
    lumbar puncture
  8. MS
    multiple sclerosis
  9. OCD
    obsessive-compulsive disorder
  10. PSTD
    posttraumatic stress disorder
  11. TIA
    transient ischemic attack
  12. affect
    emotional feeling or mood
  13. Alzheimer disease
    disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  14. analgesic
    a drug that relieves pain
  15. anorexia nervosa
    a severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, as evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
  16. anticonvulsant
    agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
  17. anxiolytic agents
    drugs used to reduce anxiety
  18. apathy
    lack of interest or display of emotion
  19. aphasia
    • impairment bc of localized brain injury that affects the understanding, retrieving, and formulating of meaningful and sequential elements of language, as demonstrated by an inability to use or comprehend words
    • occurs as a result of a stroke, head trauma, or disease
  20. attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder
    a dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibilty, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home, or work
  21. autism
    • a developmental disability, commonly appearing during the first three years of life, resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function, as evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions
    • persons with autism often exhibit body movements such as rocking repetitive hand movements
    • persons commonly become preoccupied with observing
  22. autonomic nervous system
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to SM, cardiac muscle, and various glands
  23. bipolar disorder
    • an affective disorder characterized by mood swings of mania and depression
    • extreme up and down states
  24. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion though induced vomiting, use of laxatives, or excessive exercise
  25. catatonia
    a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
  26. central nervous system
    brain and spinal cord
  27. cerebral palsy
    • condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth
    • characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle
  28. cerebrospinal fluid
    plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  29. cerebrovascular accident
    disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
  30. chemotherapy
    treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
  31. convulsion
    • to pull together
    • type of seizure that causes a series of sudden involuntary contractions of muscle
  32. craniectomy
    excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
  33. craniotomy
    incision into skull to approach the brain
  34. delirium
    • a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function
    • the many causes include fever, shock, and drug overdose 
    • deliro= to draw the furrow awry when plowing, to go off the rails
  35. delusion
    a persistent belief that has no basis in reality
  36. dementia
    • an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
    • dementio= to be mad
  37. dyslexia
    a developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs that affects reading, spelling, and self-expression
  38. dysphasia
    difficulty in swallowing
  39. dysphoria
    a restless, dissatisfied mood
  40. dysthymia
    a milder affective disorder characterized by chronic depression
  41. electroencephalogram
    • record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain
    • used to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
  42. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  43. epilepsy
    • disorder affecting the CNS 
    • characterized by recurrent seizures
  44. euphoria
    an exaggerated, unfounded felling of well-being
  45. generalized anxiety disorder
    • the most common anxiety disorder 
    • characterized by chronic, excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems
    • affects the ability to relax or concentrate, but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment
    • physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia
  46. grandiose
    a person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
  47. delusion
    a persistent belief that has no basis in reality
  48. hallucination
    • a false perception of the senses for which there is no reality
    • most commonly hearing or seeing things 
    • alucinor= to wander in mind
  49. hemiparesis
    partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
  50. hemiplegia
    paralysis on one side of the body
  51. hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
  52. hyperesthesia
    increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
  53. hypnotic
    agent that induces sleep
  54. hypochondriasis
    a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition that persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
  55. ideation
    the formation of thoughts or ideas, such as suicidal ideation
  56. lumbar puncture
    • introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as to obtain CSF for testing
    • also called spinal tap
  57. mania
    state of abnormal elation and increased activity
  58. meninges
    the three membranes covering the brain
  59. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  60. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    disease of the CNS characterized by the demylination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
  61. myasthenia gravis
    • autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength
    • activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
  62. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  63. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations
  64. neural tube defects
    congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube, the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
  65. neuralgia
    pain along the course of a nerve
  66. neuroleptic agents
    drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
  67. neurosis
    a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
  68. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions 
    • can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life
    • ex: the thought that a door is not locked causing repetitive checking to make sure it is locked or thoughts that one's body has been contaminated causing repetitive washing
  69. paraplegia
    paralysis from the wait down
  70. parasympathetic nervous system
    • division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions 
    • it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to a restful state after a stressful experience
  71. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling without objective causes
  72. parkinson disease
    • condition of slowly progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical NT necessary for proper movement)
    • characterized by tremor, rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia) 
    • usually occurs later in life
  73. partial seizure
    seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
  74. peripheral nervous system
    nerves that branch from the CNS including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  75. poliomyelitis
    • inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis  
    • polio = gray
  76. polyneurtitis
    inflammation involving 2 or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as a lack of thiamine
  77. post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    • a condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferer with persistent thoughts and memories of the ordeal
    • may occur after a war, violent personal assault, physical, or sexual abuse, serious accident , or natural disaster
    • symptoms: feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
  78. psychosis
    a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicate or function within one's enviornment
  79. psychotherapy
    treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with pts, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
  80. psychotrophic drugs
    medications used to treat mental illness
  81. Quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four limbs
  82. schizophrenia
    • a disease of the brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perceptions of one's environment
    • symptoms include: distortions of normal function (such as disorganized thought, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior ) flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
  83. seizure
    • sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from an abnormal firing of nerve impulses
    • may or may not be associated with convulsion
  84. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
  85. spina bifida
    • defect in development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching off the meninges ( meningocele) or of the meninges  and spinal cord (meningomyelocele) 
    • considered to be the most common neural tube defect
    • spina= spine
    • bifida = split into 2 parts
  86. stroke
    damage to the brain caused cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a  thrombus or embolus (ischemic stroke) or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke)
  87. sympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body instressful  or emergency situations
  88. syncope
    fainting
  89. tactile stimulation
    evoking a response by touching
  90. tonic-clonic seizure
    • stiffening-jerking
    • a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups
    • grand mal (big bad) seizure
  91. transient ischemic attack
    • brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain, usually caused by a partial occlusion that results in temporary neurologic deficit (impairment)
    • often precedes a CVA
  92. cerebr/o
    • cerebrum
    • largest part of the brain
  93. cerebell/o
    • cerebellum
    • little brain
  94. crain/o
    skull
  95. encephal/o
    entire brain
  96. esthesi/o
    sensation
  97. gangli/o
    ganglion (knot)
  98. gli/o
    glue
  99. gnos/o
    knowing
  100. kinesi/o
    movement
  101. lex/o
    word or pharse
  102. mening/o
    meningi/o
    meninges (membrane)
  103. myel/o
    spinal cord or bone marrow
  104. narc/o
    stupor or sleep
  105. neur/o
    nerve
  106. phas/o
    speech
  107. phob/o
    exaggerated fear or sensitivity
  108. phor/o
    carry or bear
  109. phren/o
    psych/o
    thym/o
    mind
  110. schiz/o
    split
  111. somat/o
    body
  112. somn/o
    somn/i
    hypn/o
    sleep
  113. spin/o
    • spine
    • thorne
  114. spondyl/o
    vertebr/o
    vertebra
  115. stere/o
    3-D or solid
  116. tax/o
    order or coordination
  117. thalam/o
    thalamus (a room)
  118. ton/o
    tone or tension
  119. top/o
    place
  120. ventricul/o
    ventricle (belly or pouch)
  121. -asthenia
    weakness
  122. -lepsy
    seizure
  123. -mania
    condition or abnormal impulse toward
  124. -paresis
    slight paralysis
  125. -plegia
    paraylsis

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