Nerves and stuff

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  1. Neurons
    a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
  2. Sensory Neurons
    neurons that carry INCOMING information from the sensory receptors to the brain and spinal cord
  3. Motor Neurons
    neurons that carry OUTGOING information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles and glands
  4. Interneurons
    • Neurons within the brain and spinal cord that communicate internally and intervene between the sensory inputs and motor outputs
    • more interneurons = deeper thinking capabilities
  5. Dendrite
    the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receives messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
  6. Axon
    the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
  7. Myelin Sheath
    • a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons
    • enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
  8. Action Potentional
    • a neural impulse
    • a brief, electrical charge that travels down an axon
  9. Threshold
    • the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse
    • when resting, (+) are out, (-) are in; opposite is true when it shoots out
  10. Synapse
    • the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
    • the tiny gap at this junction is called the synaptic gap or synaptic cleft
  11. Neurotransmitters
    • chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
    • When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse
  12. Reputake
    a neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
  13. Nervous System
    the body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
  14. Central Nervous System
    the brain and spinal cord
  15. Peripheral Nervous System
    the sensory and moto neurons that connect to the central nervous system
  16. Somatic Nervous System
    the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
  17. Autonomic Nervous System
    the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs; its sympathetic division arouses, its parasympathetic division calms
  18. Parasympathetic nervous system
    the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving energy
  19. Nerves
    bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
  20. Reflex
    a simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee jerk response
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Nerves and stuff
2013-09-27 20:18:21

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