SW6700

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SW6700
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2013-09-27 16:41:23
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SW6700 vocab
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  1. Affect:
    • A pattern of observable behaviors that is the expression of a subjectively
    • experienced feeling state (emotion). Examples of affect include sadness,
    • elation, and anger.
  2. Alogia
    • An impoverishment in thinking that is inferred from observing speech and language
    • behavior
  3. Anhedonia
    • Lack of enjoyment from, engagement in, or energy for life’s experiences; deficits in
    • the capacity to feel pleasure and take interest in things
  4. Aphasia
    • the loss of a previously held ability to
    • speak or understand spoken or written language, due to disease or injury of the
    • brain
  5. Asociality
    reduced initiative for interacting with other people
  6. Avolition
    • An inability to initiate and persist in goal-directed activities. When severe
    • enough to be considered pathological, avolition is pervasive and prevents the
    • person from completing many different types of activities
  7. Catatonic behavior
    • Marked motor abnormalities including motoric immobility, certain types of excessive motor activity (purposeless agitation not influenced by external stimuli),
    • extreme negativism (apparent motiveless resistance to instructions or attempts
    • to be moved)
  8. Cognition
    Processes of knowing, including attending, remembering, and reasoning
  9. Comorbidity
    experience of more than one disorder at the same time
  10. Compulsion
    Repetitive behaviors (eg hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (eg praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession, or according to rules that must be applied rigidly
  11. Conversion symptom
    • A loss of, or alteration in, voluntary
    • motor or sensory functioning, with or without apparent impairment of consciousness. The symptom is not fully explained by a neurological or another medical condition or the direct effects of a substance and is not intentionally produced or feigned.
  12. Countertransference
    • Circumstances in which a psychoanalyst
    • develops personal feelings about a client
    • because of perceived similarity of the client to significant people in the therapist's life
  13. Defense mechanism
    • Mechanisms that mediate the individual’s reaction to emotional conflicts and to external stressors. Some defense mechanisms (eg projection, splitting, acting out) are almost invariably maladaptive. Others (suppression, denial) may be either
    • maladaptive or adaptive, depending on their severity, their inflexibility, and the context in which they occur
  14. Delusion
    • A false belief based on incorrect inference about external reality that is firmly
    • held despite what almost everyone else believes and despite what constitutes
    • incontrovertible and obvious proof or evidence to the contrary.
  15. Depersonalization
    • The
    • experience of feeling detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of,
    • one’s mental processes, body, or actions. (eg feeling like one is in a dream, a
    • sense of unreality of self, perceptual alterations, emotional and or physical
    • numbing, temporal distortions, sense of unreality)
  16. Derealization
    The experience of feeling detached from, and as if one is an outside observer of, one’s surroundings (eg individuals or objects are experienced as unreal, dreamlike, foggy, lifeless, or visual distorted)
  17. Dissociation
    The splitting off of clusters of mental contents from conscious awareness. Dissociation is a mechanism central to dissociative disorders. The term is also used to describe the separation of an idea from its emotional significance and affect, as seen in the inappropriate affect in schizophrenia
  18. Dyskinesia
    Distortion of voluntary movements with involuntary muscle activity
  19. Emotional lability
    Instability of emotional experiences and mood; emotions that are easily aroused, intense, and or out of proportion to events and circumstances. Emotional liability is a facet of the broad personality trait domain NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY
  20. Flight of ideas
    • A nearly continuous flow of accelerated of speech with abrupt changes from topic
    • to topic that are usually based on understandable associations, distracting
    • stimuli, or plays on words. When the condition is severe, speech may be
    • disorganized and incoherent
  21. Grandiosity
    Believing that one is superior to others and deserves special treatment; self-centeredness; feelings of entitlement; condescension toward others. Grandiosity is a facet of the broad personality trait domain ANTAGONISM
  22. Hallucination - subset
    A perception-like experience with the clarity and impact of a true perception but without the external stimulation of the relevant sensory organ. Hallucinations should be distinguished from ILLUSIONS, in which an actual external stimulus is misperceived or misinterpreted
  23. Ideas of reference
    The feeling that causal incidents and external events that have a particular and unusual meaning that is specific to the person. An idea of reference is to be distinguished from a DELUSION OF REFERENCE, in which there is a belief that is held with delusional conviction
  24. Magical thinking
    The erroneous belief that one’s thoughts, words, or actions will cause or prevent a specific outcome in some way that defies commonly understood laws of cause and effect. Magical thinking may be a part of normal child development
  25. Mood (subset)
    A pervasive and sustained emotion that colors the perception of the world. Common examples of mood include depression, elation, anger, and anxiety. In contrast to affect, which refers to more fluctuating changes in emotional “weather,” mood refers to a pervasive and sustained emotional “climate”
  26. Negative Affectivity
    Frequent and intense experiences of high levels of a wide range of negative emotions (eg anxiety, depression, guild/shame, worry, anger), and their behavioral (eg self-harm) and interpersonal (eg dependency) manifestations. Negative Affectivity is one of the five pathological PERSONALITY TRAIT DOMAINS defined in Section III “Alternative DM-% Model for Personality Disorders.”
  27. Obsession
    Recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive and unwanted and that in most individuals cause marked anxiety or distress. The individual attempts to ignore or suppress such thoughts, urges, or images, or to neutralize them with some other thought or action (ie by performing a compulsion)
  28. Overvalued idea
    An unreasonable and sustained belief that is maintained with less than delusional intensity (ie the person is able to  acknowledge the possibility that the belief may not be true). The belief is not one that is ordinarily accepted by other members of the person’s culture or subculture
  29. Pathology
    the study of disease processes
  30. Perception
    The processes that organize information in the sensory image and interpret it as having been produced by properties of objects or events in the external, three-dimensional world
  31. Perseveration
    Persistence at tasks or in particular way of doing things long after the behavior has ceased to be functional or effective; continuance of the same behavior despite repeated failures of clear reasons for stopping. Perseveration is a facet of the broad personality trait domain NEGATIVE AFFECTIVITY
  32. Personality
    Enduring patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself. PERSONALITY TRAITS are prominent aspects of personality that are exhibited in relatively consistent ways across time and across situations. Personality traits influence self and interpersonal functioning. Depending on their severity, impairments in personality functioning and personality trait expression may reflect the presence of a personality disorder
  33. Phobia
    A persistent fear of a specific object, activity, or situation (ie the phobic stimulus) out of proportion to the actual danger posed by the specific object or situation that results in a compelling desire to avoid it. If it cannot be avoided, the phobic stimulus is endured with marked distress
  34. Pressured speech
    Speech that is increased in amount, accelerated, and difficult or impossible to interrupt. Usually it is also loud and emphatic. Frequently the person talks without any social stimulation and may continue to talk even though no one is listening
  35. Psychoticism
    Exhibiting a wide range of culturally incongruent odd, eccentric, or unusual behaviors and cognitions, including both process (eg perception, dissociation) and content (eg beliefs). Psychoticism is one of the five broad PERSONALITY TRAIT DOMAINS defined in Section III “Alternative DSM-5 Model for Personality Disorders.”
  36. Racing thoughts
    A state in which the mind uncontrollably brings up random thoughts and memories and switches between them very quickly. Sometimes the thoughts are related, with one thought leading to another; other times they are completely random. A person experiencing an episode of racing thoughts has no control over them and is unable to focus on a single topic or to sleep
  37. Schema
    • General conceptual frameworks, or clusters of knowledge, regarding objects, people, and
    • situations; knowledge packages that encode generalizations about the structure of the environment
  38. Stereotyped behaviors/movement
    Repetitive, abnormally frequent, non-goal oriented movements, seemingly driven, and nonfunctional motor behavior (eg hand shaking or waving, body rocking, heading banging, self-biting)
  39. Stupor
    Lack of psychomotor activity, which may range from not actively relating to the environment to complete immobility
  40. Tic
    An involuntary, sudden, rapid, recurrent, non-rhythmic motor movement or vocalization
  41. Transference
    The process by which a person in psychoanalysis attaches to a therapist feelings formerly held toward some significant person who figured in a past emotional conflict

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