Test 1 Personality ch. 3

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Test 1 Personality ch. 3
2013-09-30 10:52:22
personality psychology freud theories

vocabulary on chapter 3
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  1. Aim
    Instinctual impulses strive toward satisfaction or tension reduction. An ultimate aim is the immediate gratification of an instinctual demand, and an intermediate aim is the substitute form of satisfaction when an instinct is blocked from obtaining a suitable goal.
  2. Antichexis
    the barrier that is set up by the preconscious content through repression. Also the removal of charges of mental energy (cathexes), or the diversion of attention from memory image of a noxious stimuli; a form of mental withdrawal from threatening stimuli.
  3. Anxiety
    Feeling arising from the ego's sense of being overwhelmed and helpless. Freud defined three types: Realistic anxiety is triggered by real and objective sources of danger in the external world. Neurotic anxiety is caused by ids instinctual impulses threaten the ego. Moral anxiety is felt when the id disregards moral and ethical concerns and fears the superego censure.
  4. Cathexis
    (from a Greek root, meaning "to hold on to") a term used to describe the attachment of metal energy to a variety of thoughts, feelings, or objects. The plural is cathexes.
  5. Manifest content
    The surface meaning of a dream, that is, images, story lines, and symbols as observed and remembered by the dreamer as they appear to be.
  6. Pleasure Principle
    The seeking after pleasure by the discharge of unpleasurable mounting tension. The nervous system must find a way to reduce the biological deficit (or to satisfy the urge)that an instinctual demand represents.
  7. Metapsychology
    Literally, "beyond psychology"; metapsychology is the term used by Freud when ever a psychological process is understood from its descriptive, systematic, and dynamic aspects. Once must look at the complex interplay of multiple determinants.
  8. Displacement
    A technique the censorship agency of the mind uses to replace a latent dream element in consciousness by a more remote idea, or to accomplish a shifting of the dream's recalled emphasis away from an important idea and toward an unimportant one.
  9. Ego
    Arising from the id, it is the part of the personality that is in contac with reality. It acts as a mediator between urges of the id and the demands of the superego. It uses reason and problem-solving strategies to solve the often incompatible demands of the id and superego
  10. Libido
    In Freudian theory, the energy of the sexual or pleasure instincts. Later theorists such as and Jung and Alfred Adler) would develop alternate definitions of libido.
  11. Id
    The unconscious and the oldest component of the personality. It contains mental representation of the instincts and leads to urges to satisfy instinctual and leads to urges to satsfy instinctual needs. It operates according to the pleasure principle.
  12. Primary Process Theory
    The id satisfies bodily needs in two ways: Through reflexive action, it reduces tesnion and through wish fulfillment, it imagines the objects to satisfy the need. the imagery or fantasy temptation reduces the tension linked to the need. The unconscious knows no bounds to its wishfullness and fatasized objects. Primary process thinking does not take reality into account.
  13. Reality principle
    The principle that directs the ego's activities. It censures the ego to interact realistically with the environment to satisfy the id's sensual appetite and also the superego's moral concerns.
  14. Repression
    The process by which unconscious impulses and memories are kept out of awareness. Unlike suppression, repression, occurs outside of conscious awareness. These are two types of repression: primal repression and repression proper.
  15. Neurological model
    Freud's model of psychological processes as determined by the electrochemical activities of systems of neurons within the brain. Freud ultimately abandoned this theory, and many Freudians consider its only a metaphor for human experience
  16. Secondary process thinking
    Deals with ego's efforts to bring about genuine biological satisfaction. The ego takes the demands of reality into consideration and delays gratification of the need until appropriate objects is found. it tries to match the object to the persons need.
  17. Object
    A concrete, usually external, object that has the power to reduce or to satisfy an instinctual need. Appropriate objects may be changed many times to satisfy a specific instinct.
  18. Thanatos
    (a term derived from Thanatos, the Greek god of death) The death instinct. It is a desire to returnĀ  to a state of inorganic existence in wich ther are no biological demands to be met. Two derivatives of this instinct are aggression and destruction-desire to destroy the self.
  19. Structural Model
    The model of the mind that divides it into three agencies-the id, ego, and super ego. It subsumes all of the mental functions previously assigned to the unconscious and the preconscious.
  20. Transference
    A term Freud gave to patients tendencies to react to their therapists with emotions reproduced from childhood. Patients transferred feelings that often originated with their parents to their therapists.
  21. Topographic/systematic model.
    The model of the mind that divides it into the unconscious, the pre-conscious, and conscious systems.
  22. Unconscious
    A term Freud used to describe that part of the mind containing instincts, thoughts, and emotions that were not part of or acceptable to the conscious mind. Frued attached three different meanings to the term unconscious: the descriptive unconscious, the dynamic unconscious, and the systematic unconscious.