cell biology exam 1

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cell biology exam 1
2013-09-28 02:12:50
sfsu cell bio

cell bio fc
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  1. 3 ER function
    • synthesis of fatty acids
    • metabolism of carbo
    • detoxification
  2. plasma membrane function
    encloses the cell
  3. 3 Golgi apparatus function
    • modification of prot/carbo/phospholip
    • producing polysacc
    • sorting and releasing products
  4. lysosome function
    breakdown of substances to recycle
  5. 4 vacuole function
    • digestion
    • storage
    • disposal
    • cell growth
  6. mitochondrion function
    cell resp (powerhouse of the cell)
  7. chloroplast function
    aids in photosynthesis
  8. peroxisome function
    contains enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide by combining H with O
  9. 3 organelles found in animal cells but not plant cells
    • lysosomes
    • centrosomes
    • flagella
  10. 4 organelles that are found in plant cell and not animal cells
    • chloroplast
    • central vacuole
    • cell wall
    • plasmodesmata
  11. control
    an experiment whose result is known and well established
  12. positive/negative control
    an experiment whose result will always test positive/negative
  13. necessary
    if when we take something out, the phenomenon we are studying is disrupted
  14. sufficient
    if adding something to a system it causes a change which we will study
  15. example of sufficient and necessary
    • N-sperm is necessary for development of an embryo
    • S-eating garlic is sufficient for bad breath but not necessary because there could be other factors
  16. 4 levels of protein structures
    • pri
    • sec
    • tert
    • quat
  17. 5 generalities of viruses being model organism
    • proteins in DNA/RNA/protein syn
    • gene reg
    • transport of proteins and organelles inside cells
    • infection/immunity
    • gene therapy
  18. 4 generalities of bacteria being model organism
    • proteins in DNA/RNA/protein syn
    • gene reg
    • target for new antibiotics
    • cell cycle signal
  19. 5 reasons why we study model organisms
    • available
    • rapid reproducing
    • amenable to genetic manipulations
    • transparent
    • cheap
  20. 6 generalities of yeast being a model organism
    • control cell cyc/div
    • protein secretion
    • membrane biogenesis
    • cell differentiation
    • aging
    • gene reg
  21. 7 generalities of roundworm being a model organism
    • development of body plan
    • cell lineage
    • form/func of NS
    • control of programmed cell death
    • grow/multiply rapidly
    • aging
    • gene reg
  22. 7 generalities of fruitfly being a model organism
    • develop of body plan
    • gen of differentiated cell lineages
    • form of NS/Heart
    • programmed cell death
    • genetic control of behavior
    • grow/multiply rapidly
    • effect of drugs/alcohol
  23. 3 generalities of zebra fish being a model organism
    • develop of vertebrate body tissues
    • form/func of brain/NS
    • birth defects/cancer
  24. 5 generalities of plants being a model organism
    • develop/pattern of tissues
    • physiology
    • gene reg
    • immunity
    • infectious diseases
  25. 5 generalities of mouse being a model organism
    • develop of body tissues
    • func of mammal immune system
    • form/func of brain and nervous sys
    • models of human diseases
    • gene reg and inheritance
  26. resolution
    the ability to distinguish between 2 very closely positioned objects
  27. resolution of light microscope is
    .2 micrometers, its limited by the WV of light
  28. a light compound microscope is used for what type of microscopy
    bright field
  29. 4 types of regular light microscopy techniques
    • bright field
    • cross polarized light
    • dark field
    • phase contrast
  30. this type of contrast comes from absorbance of light in the sample
    bright field
  31. this type of contrast comes from light scattered by the sample
    dark field
  32. this type of contrast comes from the rotation of polarized light through the sample
    cross polarized light
  33. this type of contrast comes from interference of different path lengths of light through the sample
    phase contrast
  34. the contrast comes from absorbance of light in a sample
    bright field illumination
  35. 3 techniques generate contrast by taking advantage of difference in the refractive index and thcikness of cellular materials
    • bright field
    • dic
    • phase contrast
  36. technique of microscopy that is based on the inference of polarized light
  37. technique of microscopy that is good for small details and thick objects
  38. technique of microscopy that is created by brightness or darkness depending on refractive index of the area
    phase contrast
  39. technique of microscopy that is good for single cells or thin tissue
  40. resolution of electron microscope
  41. use of electron microscope
    localize the proteins in sub cellular scale
  42. "light" used for electron microscopy
    electron beam
  43. how is the presence detected from the electron microscopy?
    • the sample is labeled with a heavy metal
    • the electron beams hit the metal and produces the image
  44. FACS
    fluorescence activated cell sorter
  45. the cloud of points near zero represent
    background levels of of the proteins being sorter, basically noise
  46. why do we use several antibodies?
    what are the function?
    to identify the protein of interest that has an attached primary antibody, and the secondary antibody that is specific for the species in which the primary antibody was created
  47. 3 steps of immunohistochemistry protocol
    • prepare and place on microscope slide
    • incubate with primary antibody, wash away unbound antibody
    • incubate the fluorochrome conjugated secondary antibody, wash away unbound antibodies
    • mount specimen and observe in fluoro microscope
  48. overton hypothesis/objective
    knew the concept of (non)polar and reasoned that what entered the cell would have to dissolve the outer boundary
  49. overton experiment
    • placed root hairs into hundreds of diff solutions
    • discovered the more lipid soluble the solution the more rapidly it would enter the root hair cells
  50. overton conclusion
    the outer boundary matched a fatty oil
  51. gorten and grendel hypothesis
    is the PM were really a bilayer then its surface area should be half that occupied by the lipids spread out in a mono
  52. gorten and grendel experiment
    • extracted lipids from erythrocyte membranes
    • spread the lipids out
    • measured the monolayer surface areas
  53. gorten and grendel conclusion
    the cell mono surface area ratio was 1:2, confirming their bilayer model of the plasma membrane
  54. fluid mosaic model
    core lipid bilayer exists in a fluid state capable of movement
  55. membrane proteins form a mosaic of particles penetrating lipids
    fluid mosaic model
  56. 5 functions of the cell membrane
    • regulates passage in and out
    • detect chem messengers at surface
    • link adjacent cells together
    • anchors cells to the extracellular matrix
    • anchors the cell to cytoskeleton
  57. 2 types of phospholipids in aqueous solution
    • liposome
    • micelle
  58. 3 common membrane lipids
    • phosphoglycerides
    • sphingolipids
    • cholesterol
  59. two faces of cellular membranes
    • cytosolic
    • exoplasmic
  60. cytosolic face faces in towards the cell, the exoplasmic faces outward on the cell
  61. those inside the cell exhibit exo and cyto faces, during exo and endocytosis the inside engulfing's outside is the cyto while the inside contains the exo because it invaginated which caused this change
  62. in the cell cytosolic face is outside/exo is in
    out of the cell the cyto face is inside and exo is out
  63. most abundant class of lipids in most mem
  64. structure of phosphoglycerides
    fatty acid chains that have 16-18 C and 0-3 C=C
  65. 4 head groups that classify phosphoglycerides
    • choline
    • ethanolamine
    • serine
    • inositol
  66. have a phosphate based polar chain
  67. 2 kinds of sphingolipids
    • sphingomyelin
    • glycosphingolipids
  68. basic structure has a four ring carbon
  69. sterol: yeast, plant, animal
    • ergosterol
    • phtyosterol
    • cholesterol
  70. 3 characteristics to cholesterol
    • amphipathic
    • absent from prokary and plant cells
    • too hydrophobic
  71. 50-90% of mammalian cholesterol is in membranes
  72. function of lipid rafts
    cholesterol and sphingolipids packed together to form rafts that float w/in a more fluid and disordered environment
  73. 3 types of proteins
    • integral
    • peripheral
    • GPI
  74. how to isolate the proteins in the cell mem
    freeze fracture-divides the phospholipid leaflets of the membrane
  75. what determines the blood group
    the kind og oligosaccharide chain that are attached to membrane lipids and proteins
  76. Blood type compatible/ no compatibility
    • A-A or O/ anti-b antibodies
    • B-B or O/ anti-a antibodies
    • AB-all/ none
    • O-O/ anti -a & -b
  77. 4 experiments that show the protein distribution in the membrane
    • freeze fracture
    • enzymatic digestion
    • antibodies
    • sequencing
    • solubilizing mem proteins
  78. channels A or P
  79. uniports A or P
  80. contransport A or P
  81. Pumps A or P
  82. channels ( think of the stuff that is permeable to it)
  83. 2 types of transporters
    • uniports
    • cotransports
  84. 2 types of cotransports
    • symporters
    • antiporters
  85. the opening and closing of ion channels results from conform changes in integral proteins
  86. once ion channels open the ions move following charge/electrical and conc/chemical forces
  87. ion channels can either be open always or regulated
  88. dont move as many molecules as channels do because of binding and confor shifts
  89. cotransport
    the movement of 2 molecules moving out/in of the cell at the same time (secondary active transport)
  90. symport
    movement of 2 molecules out/in the cell at the same time in the same direction
  91. antiport
    movement of 2 molecules out/in the cell at the same time in different directions
  92. nernst equation