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What are the components of early literacy?
- print awareness
- letter knowledge
- phonological awareness
what is one of the best predictor of a student's late reading success?
early literacy knowledge
What does linear mean in regards to learning search skills in reading?
the skills need to be learned in order
What is print knowledge?
the knowledge of the functions and forms of print
Functions of print?
- print carries meaning
- print can be used for different purpose
- print matches speech word for word
conventions of print?
- print is print no matter what form it appears
- print words are made up of letters
- print words are separated by space
- sentences are made up of separate words
- sentences start with a capital and ends with a period
- text is read left to right, top to bottom
- when a page ends text continues on the next page
- a book has a front and back cover
- a book has a spine
- has a title and title page
- has an author and sometimes an illistrator
- you read the left page before the right page
- you turn one page at a time
What is print referencing?
it is a read aloud strategy that directs students attention to the forms and function of print
What are some examples of print referencing cues?
- ask questions about print
- make comments about print
- pose requests about print
- point to print when talking about story
- track the print while reading
What does the research say about print information?
- assessments meansuring a child's understanding of print concepts have accurately predicted future reading
- doesn't emerge automatically, but through active engagement
- print-rich environment provides opportunities
What are some ideas for getting kids to read in the home?
- tell the parents to read to their kids
- give kids incentives
- send kids home with books
When should assessments in reading take place?
What is one good way to informally assess children in reading?
What are the three parts to letter knowledge?
- learning the letter shapes
- associating shapes with names (arbitrary)
- learning the sound of each letter (not arbitrary)
What does the word iconic mean in reading?
the letter sound is usually in the name
What letters do students confuse most?
letter with similar names and shapes
When is letter-sound correspondence easier for children?
when students realize that the sound the letter makes is often in the letter name
When are letters and their sounds easiest for students to understand?
- when the sound is in the beginning of the letter name
- in the end of the letter name
- the long sounds of vowel is the vowel name
When is letter-sound harder to hear?
- When the soft sound of the letter is at the beginning
- the sound at the beginning sounds a lot like that of other letters
- less frequent letter sound at the end of the letter name (y)
What is letter-sound hardest to hear?
- letter sound is not in the name at all (h,w)
- short vowel sound not in letter name
- most frequent letter sound isn't in the letter name
Reciting the alphabet is a sign of letter knowledge? Yes or No?
What way do students typically learn letter instruction?
- letter names
- letter shapes
- letter sounds
How do students learn handwriting?
- explicit instruction
- lots of practice
What are the three part of handwriting?
- paper position
- pencil grip
How do you first teach handwriting letters?
practice the motor patterns in something like sand, shaving cream, ect.
It what order do you teach letter writing?
practice the letters that are formed in similar ways
How do we know students are ready to read?
ability to know letters out of order quickly
What are the best ways to teach letters?
- alphabet books
- name matching
- alphabet concentration
What is phonological awareness?
a term that includes larger parts of spoken words as well as the smallest parts
What is phonemic awareness?
the ability to detect, identify, and manipulate phonemes in spoken word.
What is the difference between phonological awareness and phonemic awareness?
- phonological refers to all levels of breaking down language while phonemic awareness refers solely to breaking down words in
What is the phonological awareness continuum?
- rhyme and alliteration
- sentence segmentation
- onset and rimes
What are the different ways to manipulate sounds in phonological awareness?
What are some ways to manipulate phonemes specifically?
- isolation: give a word to recognize an individual sound
- identity: give a word and let them find a similar sounding word from a group of other words
- categorization: give a group of words and let them identify the odd sound
- deletion: take out a phoneme and replace it for a new world
- addition: add a sound
- substitution: replace a sound with another