Physics Chapters 1-2

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ams217
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237423
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Physics Chapters 1-2
Updated:
2013-09-27 21:28:47
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Essential Concepts Radiologic Science Structure Matter
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Radiologic Physics Chapters 1&2
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  1. anything that occupies space and has mass
    matter
  2. Newton (N) =
    kg(m/s2)
  3. measured in kg
    mass
  4. when asking for the weight of something answer should always be...
    Newtons (N)
  5. gravity
    9.8m/s2
  6. energy is always measured in
    Joules (J)
  7. Joules (J) =
    kg*m2/s2 or N*m
  8. 1 inch
    2.54cm
  9. the ability to do work by virtue of position
    potential energy
  10. the energy of motion
    kinetic energy
  11. energy released by a chemical reaction
    chemical energy
  12. the work that can be done when an electron moves through an electric potential difference
    electrical energy
  13. the energy of motion at the atomic and molecular level
    thermal energy
  14. the energy contained in the nucleus of the atom
    nuclear energy
  15. the type of energy in x-rays, radio waves, microwaves, uv light, infrared, and visible light
    electromagnetic energy
  16. energy emitted and transformed through space
    radiation
  17. any type of radiation capable of removing an orbital electron from that atom that it interacts with
    ionizing radiation
  18. the ejected electron and the resulting positively charged atom
    ion pair
  19. when a patient is exposed to x-rays
    irradiated
  20. natural environmental radiation makes up about...
    3mSv/year
  21. man-made radiation makes up about...
    3.2mSv/year
  22. a radioactive gas that is produced when uranium decays and it is present on the earth; emits alpha particles that can be ingested into the lungs
    radon
  23. who discovered x-rays and when?
    Wilhelm Roentgen - November 8, 1895
  24. first x-ray tube
    Crookes tube
  25. describe each: Radiography, Fluoroscopy, CT
    picture, movie, slices like a loaf of bread that can be reconstructed to create a 3D image
  26. x-ray voltages are measured in...
    kVp (kilovolt peak)
  27. 1kV
    1000 V
  28. x-ray currents are measured in...
    mA (milliampere)
  29. helped reduce the exposure time when used in conjunction with glass plates
    intensifying screens
  30. developed the fluoroscope
    Thomas Edison in 1898
  31. sheet of lead with a hole in the center that restricts the beam (cone)
    collimation
  32. insert something into the bean to improve the diagnostic quality of the film
    filtration
  33. ALARA
    As Low As Reasonably Achievable
  34. 3 Cardinal Principles of radiation protection
    time, distance and shielding
  35. speed of light
    c=3 x 108 m/s
  36. a body will remain at rest or continue to move with constant velocity in a straight line unless acted on by an external force. Law of Inertia.
    Newton's 1st Law
  37. the force acting on an object with acceleration is equal to the mass times the acceleration. F=ma
    Newton's 2nd Law
  38. for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
    Newton's 3rd Law
  39. KE =
    1/2mv2
  40. PE =
    mgh (mass x gravity x height)
  41. the kenetic energy of the random motion of molecules
    heat
  42. cooling of an x-ray tube
    radiation
  43. transfer of heat by touching high temp to low temp and it equals out
    conduction
  44. transfer of hot liquid from one place to another
    convection
  45. exposure (intensity)
    Roentgen (R) / Air kerma (Gya)
  46. absorbed dose
    Rad  / (Gray) Gyt
  47. effective dose (occupational dose)
    Rem / Sievert (Sv)
  48. radioactivity (source)
    Curie (Ci) / Becquerel (Bq)
  49. another name for velocity
    speed
  50. inertia is...
    the resistance to a change in motion
  51. developed the periodic table of elements
    Mendelev
  52. protons and neutrons together
    nucleons
  53. to calculate the maximum number of electrons in a shell
    M=2n2
  54. these elements add electrons to the inner shells and still leave eight electrons in the outer most shell
    transitional elements
  55. the force that keeps the electrons orbiting around the nucleus
    centripetal force
  56. helps the electrons maintain their distance from the nucleus ans traveling in a circular path (so they don't fall into the nucleus)
    centrifugal force
  57. the strength of the attachment of the electron to the nucleus
    electron binding energy
  58. ionizing potential
    34eV
  59. atomic number =
    number of protons
  60. atomic mass =
    number of protons and neutrons
  61. same number of protons, but varying number of neutrons
    isotopes
  62. different number of protons and different number of neutrons, but the same total number of nucleons
    isobars
  63. different number of protons and the same number of neutrons
    isotones
  64. same atomic number and the same atomic mass number
    isomers
  65. any quantity of one type of molecule
    chemical compound
  66. sharing of electrons
    covalent bond
  67. giving up of an electron by the atom; making it ionized
    ionic bond
  68. the emission of particles and energy to become stable
    radioactivity
  69. produced in particle accelerators or nuclear reactors
    radioisotopes
  70. an electron is ejected from the nucleus and at the same time a neutron converts to a proton. the result is to increase the atomic number by 1
    beta emission
  71. the alpha particle is emitted. the resulting atom is chemically different and lighter
    alpha emission
  72. the amount of time required for the quantity of radioactivity to be reduced to one-half its original activity
    half-life
  73. emitted from the nucleus (origin)
    gamma rays
  74. produced outside of the nucleus (origin)
    x-rays
  75. very short range, deposited in superficial layers of skin
    alpha particles
  76. longer range, 1-2cm of tissue
    beta particles

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