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What are the two main features that characterize information technology?
- 1. Electronic tools that help people manage information.
- 2. The relationship between these tools and people's lives.
What are the two sides of the Spectrum of Modern IT?
People-Orientated Issues and Machine-Orientated Issues.
What three things are under the People-Orientated Issues side of the spectrum?
- Health Issues
- Supports for the disabled
What are the two things that are under the category of mostly People-Orientated Issues, but a little bit of Machine-Orientated?
- The way we work (ATM's changing banking jobs).
What is the one thing are under the Machine-Orientated Issues side of the spectrum, but is a little bit People-Orientated?
What are the two things that are under the Machine-Orientated Issues of the spectrum?
Infrastructure and Hardware Systems
What's special about circuitry in the Mechanical Era?
It's characterized by the use of machines to solve mathematical problems.
What's special about circuitry in the First Generation?
Computers used electronic switches in the form of vacuum tubes, which opened and closed 1000x faster than mechanical switches.
What's special about circuitry in the Second Generation?
Transistors replaced vacuum tubes. They were much smaller and worked much faster, resulting in smaller and faster computers.
What's special about circuitry in the Third Generation?
With an integrated circuit, a computer as able to perform many tasks.
What's special about circuitry in the Fourth Generation?
Introduction and development of the microprocessor, a single chip that could process data, store information in memory, accept input data and produce output.
What's special about circuitry in the Fifth Generation?
Define by parallel processing, which is a mean by which more than one processor can be used to perform different parts of the same tasks at one time.
What's special about circuitry in the Sixth Generation?
Improved processor designs increased the speed of central processing units (CPU).
What year was the Mechanical Era?
1820s to 1942
What year was the First Generation?
1943 to 1953
What year was the Second Generation?
1954 to 1962
What year was the Third Generation?
1963 to 1972
What year was the Fourth Generation?
1973 to 1984
What year was the Fifth Generation?
1984 to 1990
What year was the Sixth Generation?
1990 to present day.
What year was the Internet born?
Who made the Internet and how?
- ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) of the U.S. Department of Defense.
- They linked together mainframe computers to form a communications network.
What were the two objectives of ARPANet?
- 1. to create a communication system that could survive a nuclear attack or natural disaster.
- 2. to provide communication links to its users in remote locations.
In 1983, what happened to ARPANet?
It split into 2 parts: ARPANet and MILNet. It also transformed into an international communication tool for the academic community.
What was MILNet used for?
It was mainly used by the military and various defence agencies.
What was ARPANet used for?
It was a researched and development network.
What was wrong with ARPANet in the mid-1980s?
The backbone speed was too slow for the high demands of the academic and research community.
What was created because of ARPANet's slow backbone speed in the mid-1980s?
- NSFNet was created.
- NSF stands for National Science Foundation.
What were the 2 main objectives of NSFNet?
- 1. to interconnect supercomputing centres so they could access one another's resources (supercompters are mainframe computers capable of very fast processing. Used for tasks such as worldwide weather forecasting, oil exploration and weapons research).
- 2. to give academic and research centres access to one another for purposes of exchanging information.
What happened to NSFNet and ARPANet in the early 1990s?
They were linked together, but since NSFNet had a faster backbone, it fully replaced ARPANet.
Where does the word "Internet" come from?
It comes from the word "Interworking".
What is interworking?
It's the process of linking a collection of networks.
What year was the Internet officially adopted?
In the late 1980s and early 1990s, what was the growing demand for?
It was the demand for "anytime, anywhere" access information through computer networks because people started buying their own PCs.
What did NSFNet serve?
It served academic users only and did not serve business and individuals.
What are some examples of a telecommunication company?
Bell Canada, Nortel, AT&T
What did telecommunication companies build?
They built high-speed backbones and new networks that used the same protocol as NSFNet.
What does TCP/IP stand for?
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
What did TCP/IP become? What did it cost?
- It became the accepted means of communication across networks.
- It was free!
What led to the rapid growth and exciting new uses for the Internet?
The birth of the World Wide Web and the development of browser software.
Who developed the WWW?
When was the WWW invented?
In the early 1980s.
Where was the WWW invented?
The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland
What are alternate names for the World Wide Web?
What is the WWW made of?
- It's made of a collection of millions of hypertext documents, which are commonly written in a web authoring language called HTML.
- These documents contain built-in applications and links to databases, in addition to text sound, graphics and animation.
What Web authoring language was used to create hypertext documents?
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)
What is HTTP?
- HTTP stands Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
- It's the set of rules that govern how documents written in HTML are interpreted and displayed through a browser.
How do you view Web pages on the Internet?
You need to have a Web browser, which is a program that will interpret hypertext documents on the web and display them on screen.
What are hyperlinks?
They lead users to another WWW site or another place within the same document.
How do you know that there is a hyperlink on the document?
They're usually highlighted or underlined text or pictures. Also, if you run your cursor over it, it changes from an arrow to a hand.
What are URLs? What do they begin with? Why?
- They're Universal Resource Locators.
- They begin with "http" to tell your browser that the file being referenced by the URL needs to be interpreted by a certain way (using HTTP) for you to be able to view it.
- It's the address of a webpage.
What's the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web?
- The Internet is the backbone. It's the physical connections, like a road.
- The World Wide Web is the software and communication. They're the cars that are on the road.
- The WWW uses the Internet.
What are the parts of the web page address?
- http - Transfer Protocol. This is the most common protocol since hypertext documents are the most commonly accessed on the Web. Other protocols include: ffp, news.
- www. - Hotsname (optional). This is the server name which is often www for Web servers. You may also see www2, w3, Web, something else or nothing at all.
- whyamidoingthis - Second-Level Domain. This is usually the organization's name as registered by the owner.
- .com - Top-Level Domain. This describes the type of domain. e.g., Generic Top-Level Domain (gTLD): .com, .org, .net --- Country Code Top-Level Domains (ccTLD): .ca, .uk, .au
What was released in February 16, 1999?
The Pentium Processor III, which contained 9.5 million transistors on a chip the size of a small cookie.
What was released in November 2000?
The Pentium 4 processor, which contained 42 million transistors and runs at speeds of 1.4 gigahertz (GHz) and 1.5 GHz.