Psychology: Chapter 6 (1 of 2)

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  1. learning
    relatively enduring change in behavior which results from experience
  2. conditioning
    process in which environmental stimuli & behavior responses become connected
  3. 2 types of conditioning?
    • operant (instrumental)
    • classical (pavlovian)
  4. Watson
    • observable behavior is only valid indicator of psychological activity
    • established behavioralism
    • Little Albert Experiment
  5. Pavlov
    • physiologist who measured salivary reflex in dogs
    • father of classical conditioning
  6. classical conditioning
    neutral object comes to elicit reflexive response when associated with stimulus that already produces that reflexive response
  7. operant conditioning
    consequences of a voluntary  action determine likelihood it will be performed in the future
  8. conditioning trial vs critical trial
    • conditioning trial: neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with natural stimulus (US) to produce response
    • critical trial: neutral stimulus (CS) produces CR
  9. acquisition
    formation of association between CS and US
  10. extinction
    CR is extinguished when CS no longer predicts US
  11. spontaneous recovery
    extinguished CS produces CR after a period of time (temporary revival)
  12. stimulus generalization
    stimuli similar to CS still produce CR
  13. stimulus discrimination
    differentiating between stimulus associated with US and one not associated with US
  14. second order conditioning
    • CS associated with stimulus associated with US
    • (chain of stimuli) can still produce CR
  15. What is the relationship between phobia and conditioning?
    Phobias can be caused by conditioning and can be cured by counterconditioning
  16. systematic desensitization
    • method of curing phobia
    • while relaxing, consider feared stimulus
  17. How does classical conditioning play a role in drug addiction?
    CS often trigger cravings, i.e. sight of heroin needle, smell of coffee
  18. Siegel
    claimed it is important to treat drug addiction by exposing them to drug cues (CS). Helps extinction.
  19. conditioned food aversion
    people avoid foods they associate with illness
  20. biological preparedness (Seligman)
    animals are biologically programmed to fear specific objects
  21. Rescorla-Wagner model
    strength of CS-US connection depends on how unexpected US is
  22. orienting response
    animal pays more attention to unfamiliar stimulus
  23. Thorndike
    • first to investigate how an animal's non reflexive behaviors can be modified as result of experience
    • cat in a box experiment 
    • law of effect: responses followed by a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated
  24. law of effect
    responses followed by a satisfying state of affairs are more likely to be repeated
  25. Skinner
    • behavioralist
    • Skinner Box: chamber with bar that animal presses to receive food
  26. Shaping
    reinforcing behaviors which are increasingly similar to desired behavior
  27. Reinforcer
    stimulus which occurs after response & increases likelihood of response being repeated
  28. primary reinforcers
    reinforcers that satisfy biological needs
  29. secondary reinforcers
    reinforcers which are established through classical conditioning
  30. Premack principle
    • more valued activity can be used to reinforce less valued activity
    • i.e. you can eat ice cream if you eat spinach
  31. Positive Reinforcement
    • increases probability behavior will be repeated by applying stimulus
    • i.e.  receiving an A (stimulus) increases probability of studying (behavior)
  32. Negative Reinforcement
    increases probability behavior will be repeated through removal of unpleasant stimulus

    i.e. Taking an Advil (behavior) gets rid of headache (unpleasant stimulus) so it is more likely to be repeated
  33. Positive Punishment
    • Decrease likelihood of behavior by applying stimulus
    • i.e. Receiving parking ticket (stimulus) for parking illegally (behavior)
  34. Negative Punishment
    • Decreases likelihood of behavior by removing stimulus
    • i.e. Removal of license (stimulus) for drunk driving (behavior)
  35. Continuous Reinforcement
    behavior is reinforced every time it is introduced
  36. Partial Reinforcement
    intermittent reinforcement of behavior
  37. Ratio and Interval Schedules of partial reinforcement
    • ratio: reinforcement based on number of times behavior occurs
    • interval: reinforcement provided after specific unit of time
  38. fixed and variable schedules of partial reinforcement
    fixed: reinforcement provided after a specific number of occurrences/amount of time

    variable: reinforcement provided at different rates/times (average)
  39. Fixed ratio
    paid each time (fixed) you complete a chore (ratio)
  40. fixed interval
    You study for exams only before the quiz is administered if the quiz is scheduled at fixed intervals
  41. variable ratio
    slot machine pays off on average every few pulls, but you never know which pull will pay
  42. variable interval
    you listen to the radio to hear your favorite song, but do know when you will hear it (variable)
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Psychology: Chapter 6 (1 of 2)
2013-09-28 03:15:25
Learning chapter psychology

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