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Partial-reinforcement extinction effect
greater persistence of behavior under partial then under continuous reinforcement
learning which occurs w.o. reinforcement
unit of knowledge transmitted within a culture
acquisition or modification of behavior after exposure to performance of behavior
Bodo doll observational learning studies Media & Violence
imitation of observed behavior
more likely to imitate models who are attractive, have high status and are similar to ourselves
people learn about an action's consequences by watching others being rewarded or punished for that action
neurons which are activated when one performs an action which they had just observed another perform
What are three functions of mirror neurons?
- help us to explain and predict others' behavior
- neural basis for empathy
- play a role in human ability to communicate through language
Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS)
- self administered shock to particular part of brain
- acts on same brain regions as those activated by food, water, sex
- neural mechanisms underlying ICSS & natural reward both use dopamine
visual/spatial mental representation of environment
brain regions which support ICSS
- subcortical brain region which is a part of limbic system
- contains dopamine neurons
When is dopamine released?
hungary, thirsty, watching cartoons, listening to good music
Can dopamine be released in response to a secondary reinforcer?
Yes, as long as it is paired with CS through classical conditioning
storage of learned material through changes in nervous system
learning results from alterations in synaptic connections
Explain Hebb's rule: cells that fire together, wire together.
When one neruon excites another, connection between two neurons is strengthened , so firing of one neuron increasingly causes firing of the other
decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to nonthreatening stimul
increase in behavioral response after exposure to threatening stimulus
Long Term Potentiation (LTP)
strengthening of a synaptic connection -> postsynaptic neurons are more easily activated
involved in learning & memory
highly involved in learning and memory
type of glutamate receptor which is required for long term potentiation (LTP)
opens only if nearby neuron fires at same time
What was discovered in Tsien's "Doogie mice" experiments?
modified genes in mice to make NMDA receptors more efficient -> mice performed amazingly in learning tests
Regions of brain where long term potentiation (LTP) occurs
- amygdala (fear conditioning)
Four aspects to process of modeling
- Attention: one must pay attention to behavior & consequences
- Retention: must store mental representation & be able to recall what was observed
- Reproduction: must have motor ability to reproduce the modeled behavior
- Motivation: must expect benefit from performing action