Biology 1020 Lecture 3. Organic Molecules

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Biology 1020 Lecture 3. Organic Molecules
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2013-09-28 03:07:09
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  1. Organic Chemistry
    Chemistry of carbon containing compounds
  2. Essential organic chemistry for biology
    • "Carbon based life forms
    • - Proteins
    • - DNA
    • - Carbohydrates etc.

    Carbon as "backbone"
  3. Hydrocarbons
    • - only carbon and hydrogen
    • - undergo reactions that release a large amount of energy
  4. tetrahedral shape
    carbon bonded to 4 other atoms (pyrimid shape with hydrogens).
  5. Shape of carbon molecule with double bond
    Double bond: hydrocarbon molecule has a flat shape
  6. Isomers
    Same molecular formula but different arrangements of atoms
  7. Different isomers
    • - Structural
    • - Geometric
    • - Entantiomers
  8. Structural Isomers
    Different covalent arrangements of their atoms
  9. Geometric Isomer
    • - Same covalent arrangments
    • - Different spatial arrangements

    • + Cis isomer: The two Xs are on the same side
    • + Trans Isomer: The two Xs are on opposite sides
  10. Enantiomers
    mirror images of each other
  11. Enantiomers #2
    • - Many biological reactions are specific to one isomer.
    • - Enantiomers of a drug may have different effects
  12. Functional groups of organic molecules
    • - Components of organic molecules most commonly involved in chemical reactions
    • - Impart molecule's unique properties
  13. Functional groups of organic molecules
    • Hydroxyl
    • carbonyl
    • carboxyl
    • Amino
    • Sulphydryl
    • Phosphate

    • Methyl
    • - non reactive
  14. Hydroxyl
    • - Alcohols
    • - Polar
    • - Hydrogen bonds
    • ( OH-)
  15. Carbonyl
    • - Terminal (on the end of a chain) --> Aldehyde
    • - Non terminal --> Ketone
    • - In sugars
    • ( C=O )
  16. Carboxyl
    • - Acidic: can donate a proton
    • - Polar
    • ( O=C-OH ) <---> ( O=C-O- + H+ )
    • Nonionized                ionized
  17. Amino
    • -Acts as a base
    • -Can pick up an H+
    • NH2 + H+ --> NH3+
  18. Functional groups
    molecules can have more than one functional group
  19. Amino acids
    Amino acids also have a carboxylic group
  20. Sulfhydryl
    • -Cross link proteins
    • -Polar
    • -Sulphur very electronegative

    • ---SH  HS---  =>
    • ---S-S----  + H2
  21. Methyl
    • non polar
    • hydrophobic
    • CH3
  22. Phosphate
    • Confers electron to electrons
    • reacts with water releasing energy
    • PO4
    • (ATP = three phosphates connected together)
  23. Macromolecules
    thousands of small organic molecules joined together by polymerization
  24. Polymer
    • long molecule consisting of smaller units (monomers)
    • polymerization via condensation/dehydration reaction (formed by loss of a water molecule).
  25. Hydrolysis of polymers
    • hydro - water
    • lysis - decomposition or dreakdown
    • (addition of a water molecule breaks the bond.)
    • Enzymes
  26. Biological Macromolecules
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Nucleic acids

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