Biology 1020 Lecture 4 Large Biological Molecules A

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Birdnut
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Biology 1020 Lecture 4 Large Biological Molecules A
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2013-09-28 13:10:41
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Biology terms
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Biology terms
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  1. Carbohydrates
    • sugars and polymers
    • Monomers -->monosaccharides
    • ex. CH2
  2. Carbohydrate polymer
    H-sugar-sugar-sugar-OH

    glycosidic linkage connecting sugars
  3. Monosaccharides
    • Suffix "ose" ribose, glucose, lactose etc.
    • has one carbonyl group, and hydroxides on usually one side of the carbon chain
    • form rings in solution

    • they are grouped based on:
    • - number of carbons in the skeleton (triose, pentose, etc)
    • - position of carbonyl group
    • - left or right enantiomers
  4. Aldose
    aldehyde sugar (carbonyl at the end of chain)
  5. ketose
    keton sugar (carbonyl in the middle of the chain)
  6. Alpha glucose ring structure
    Hydroxide on carbon 1 is below the line
  7. Beta glucose ring structure
    Hydroxide on carbon 1 is above the line
  8. Disaccharide polymerization
    • Carbohydrate polymers are joined by glysidic linkages
    • numbered w/carbons in the ring involved in linkage
    • ex. 2X Glucose = Maltose = 1-4 glysidic¬† linkage
    • ex. glucose + fructose = sucrose = 1-2 glysidic linkage
  9. Biological roles of polysaccharides
    • Structural component¬† of cells
    • - plants: cellulose
    • - Arthropods, fungi: chitin

    • Storage of surplus energy
    • - plants: starch
    • - Animals: glycogen
  10. Starch
    • in granules in the chloroplasts
    • entirely glucose
    • 1-4 linkage of alpha glucose monomers

    • 1. amylose
    • - unbranched
    • - helical

    • 2. amylopectin
    • - branched
  11. Glycogen
    • -highly branched
    • - days supply in the liver and muscles of vertebrates

    *"Carbo loading" by athletes helps to ensure that the liver and muscle gylcogen stores are high.
  12. Cellulose
    • glucose monomers
    • different arrangement than in starch
    • form straight molecules
    • 1-4 linkage of beta glucose monomers
  13. What makes cellulose tough to digest?
    • H+ atoms of one strand can bond to OH- of another
    • parallel molecules held together in microfibrils
  14. Digestion of cellulose
    • Cellulase hydrolyses beta glucose linkages
    • Made by microbes symbiotic in guts of cows and other ruminants
  15. Chitin
    • Structural polysaccharide of arthropods and fungi
    • Contains nitrogen
  16. Lipids
    • little to no affinity to water
    • hydrophobic
    • non-polar bonds
    • do not form polymers
    • store energy
    • formed by dehydration
  17. Fatty Acids
    • long hydrocarbon skeleton¬† ( 16 to 18 carbons)
    • C-H chain non polar and hydrophobic
    • carboxyl at one end
    • Carboxyl can take part in dehydration reaction. => ester linkage
  18. Triacylglycerols
    Three fatty acids linked to one glycerol
  19. Types of Lipids
    • Saturated/Unsaturated (poly-unsaturated)
    • Phospholipids
    • Steroids
  20. Saturated lipid
    • no double bonds
    • maximum hydrogen
    • solid usually at room temp. (animal fats)
  21. unsaturated lipid
    • one or more double bonds
    • if greater than one double bond = polysaturated
    • double bonds = add kinks (asymetry)
    • adjacent molecules cannot pack as close together
  22. Plant and fish oils and usually what kind of lipid?
    • unsaturated
    • liquid at room temperature
    • cis double bonds prevent molecules from packing closely together
  23. Trans fats
    cis (X's on same side) and trans (X's on opposite sides) geometric isomers

    hydrogenation of vegetable oils solidifies them at room temperature.

    produces saturated fats, and unsaturated fats with trans double bonds.
  24. Phospholipid
    • 2 fatty acids and a phosphate group (charged) attached to a glycerol
    • small polar molecules can be attached to the phosphate groups (helps determine chemical function)

    • self-assemble into a bilayer in water
    • hydrophobic tails toward the interior (seen in cell membrane)
  25. Steroids
    • carbon skeleton with 4 rings
    • ex. cholesterol
    • - synthesized in the liver
    • - cell membrances
    • - precursor to other steriods such as sex hormones

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